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Cancer and biopsies - Essay Example

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Based on Science Daily Newspaper that covers scientific themes and issues, my preffered topic from this newspaper is cancer and biopsies. …
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Download file to see previous pages Basically, cancer has been a major killer disease on the entire planet and therefore, it is interesting to study and provide information in this area so as to enable various individuals and professional gain. This will also assist in coming up with a collective responsibility in fighting the disease all over the world. It is therefore, necessary to provide the scientific and medical information regarding its causes, how it is spread, prevention and the future vision concerning its approach. Background information on cancer Cancer is a category of diseases that is characterized by out of growth of the body cells. In this case, cancer is classified according to the type of cell it originated from or the one that was priory affected. Cancer damages the body particularly when the damaged body cells continuously divide uncontrollably to form lumps of tissue known as tumors (Phelan, 2009). These structures grow and hinder the functioning of various body systems such as digestive, nervous, circulatory systems by releasing hormones. Cancer that affects human body is grouped into five classes that is, carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemia and adenomas. Development of cancer Mostly cancer is the ultimate result of body cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. This is different from normal cells in the body that follow an orderly path of growth, division and finally, death. The cells that emerge to cancer are those that come from a programmed cell thus when this process breaks down then it lead to cancer (Colditz and Hunter, 2000). Unlike regular cells; cancer cells do not encounter programmatic death but instead grow continuously out of control. This abnormal growth of cells results to a massive number of abnormal body cells. On the other hand, cells can undergo unusual enlargement in case there are damages or mutations caused to DNA. This can lead to the damaging of the genes involved in the cell division. The cell division process is enhanced by four key types of gene: the ontogenesis that tells cells when to divide, the tumor suppressor genes that controls the cell when not to divide, suicide genes that manages or handles the apoptosis. Therefore, cancer results when a cell’s gene mutations hinders the cell from correcting DNA damage and unable to commit suicide (Phelan, 2009). Similarly, cancer is as a result of mutations that slow down tumor suppressor for gene function that causes the uncontrolled cell growth in the body. Cancer can also be caused by substances that contain carcinogens, carcinogens are substances that directly damage the DNA thus promoting or aiding cancer. Examples of carcinogens include: tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, and radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays, the sun and chemical compounds from the car exhaust fumes. When our bodies are exposed to these substances, free radicals are formed that obtain electrons from other molecules in the body. This free radicals damage cells and interfere with the normal functioning of the body cells. Consequently, genetic predisposition that is inherited from family members can also lead to cancer. There is high chance of an individual with certain natural genetic mutations or a fault on a particular gene that makes one have a high probability of developing cancer later in life (Tam, 2011). Moreover, there is an upsurge of possible mutations of the genes that causes cancer varies proportionally with age. This implies that as one grows old there are high chances that he or she can contact cancer. Conversely, several cancers have also been linked to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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