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Cervical Cancer (HPV Induced) - Research Paper Example

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Cervical Cancer [Name of Student] [Name of Institution] Introduction As defined by Saslow et al. (2002), cancer, medically known as malignant neoplasm, is an umbrella of various diseases that involve unregulated cell multiplication and growth. Cancerous growths occur when body cells grow or divide uncontrollably leading to formation of malignant tumors…
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Cervical Cancer (HPV Induced)
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Download file to see previous pages Various types of cancers exist, depending on where cancerous tumors develop at. However, detection of all types of cancers is done though presence of visible signs and symptoms, medical imaging, and screening tests. Cervical cancer, for instance, is among the common type of cancer in women (Smith et al., 2012). Several cancer centers are currently researching on effective control measures, easy diagnostic procedures, and suitable management procedures for cervical cancer. This paper explores some aspects of cervical cancer. General Overview of Cervical Cancer Cervix is the lower portion of a woman’s uterus. Cervix connects the uterus with the vagina. Cervical cancer occurs when there is abnormal growth in the cervix cells and/or invasion by other tissues or organs. Like other cancers, cervical cancer is curable if detected and immediate and appropriate treatment is administered. As a key feature, cervical cancers slowly progress from a normal cervical tissue to cancerous tissue changes. This slow progression is utilized by gynecologists, who detect the disease and give treatment at an early stage. Even though this early detection and administration of proper treatment has significantly lowered down prevalence of cervical cancer, a considerable portion of women still die of the disease every year. According to Smith et al. (2012), gynecologists are still challenged by invasive nature of the disease. As defined by Gadducci et al (2011), an invasive cancer means that the disease affects deeper cervix tissues and spread to other body parts. This kind of spread is defined by Walboomers et al. (1999) as metastasis. Causes of Cervical Cancer Several types of cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Different strains of HPV exist and each strain has different effect in the body. Apart from causing precancerous growths in the cervix, HPV also causes various types of skin warts and other abnormal body surface and skin disorders. Being a cause of genital warts, HPV makes sexual contact a window through which cervical cancer is transmitted. The risk of infection is higher for women with multiple sex partners. At initial stages, HPV causes cervical lesions which slowly progress to cancer. Walboomers et al. (1999), however, observes that HPV infections, in some cases, do not lead to cancer. According to Walboomers et al. (1999), HPV causes cervical cancer if an individual is persistently infected with a particular type of HPV. Based on the claim, HPVs are classified according to cancer risks associated with each type. Three types of HPVs, thus, exist, which are high-risk, moderately-risk, and low-risk. Infection by high-risk HPVs, therefore, causes immediately cancerous tumors in epithelial cells of cervix. Cigarette smoking is another risk factor for occurrence of cervical cancer. Chemicals in a cigarette react with cervical cells causing precancerous modifications on the cells. These changes slowly progresses to cancer. Oral contraceptives, especially pills, increase chances of development of cancer of the cervix. The risk is pronounced in women who use pills for a long period. Just like the effect of tobacco, oral contraceptives react with cervical cells forming precancerous tumors. Other risk factors include: stress and stress-related disorders, multiple pregnancies, Chlamydia infection, dietary factors, family history, and weak immunity. Signs and Symptoms Sign and symptoms ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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