North American Archaeolgy- Iroquoian Confederacy - Essay Example

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Name: Course: Instructor: Date: North America Archaeology- Iroquoian Confederacy The Iroquoian Confederacy has been argued by some scholars to predate the arrival of Europeans, while other scholars contend that it was formed in response to the earliest European presence in the Northeast…
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North American Archaeolgy- Iroquoian Confederacy
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"North American Archaeolgy- Iroquoian Confederacy"

This coalescing may have occurred between the fourteenth through to the sixteenth century (Birch 196). It is evident that the findings suggest that in the 14th century warfare was an essential factor in Iroquoian life suggesting the adoption of fortified villages. According to Fagan, neighbouring villages in the Iroquoian society came together for self-defence purposes. Cannibalism is an act prevalent in this period evidently supported by the existence of split, cut cooked human bones in archaeological sites, in south Ontario. This act waged war between tribes of northern Ontario and south Ontario. The war was due to the need to revenge the death of their kinsfolk (Fagan 157). Fagan states that the constant warfare exposed communities to premature death resulted to hardship by disrupting subsistence. This warfare led neighbouring communities to combine for self-defence archaeologists suggest that the fortified middle Iroquoian communities present the first development of western Iroquoian country (Fagan 157). This trend brought significant changes in societies. Neusis suggests that alliances between Iroquoian communities were maintained through intermarriages archeologically evident through the clustering of communities dated to the 5th century. However, intermarriages proved not to resolve conflicts among the communities like the competition for resources (Neusis 589). The difference in pottery styles, burial practices, and house types signified the division that existed among the Iroquoians living south of Lake Ontario, and Iroquoians living north of Lake Ontario. Social complexity in the Iroquoian society was a result of the fusion of communities. There is evidence to support the occupation of dense local populations in certain areas. Communities were separated by largely uninhabited land (Fagan 159). Iroquoian communities had unique talents, for instance there were communities skilled in medicine and healing rituals. Such unique talents strengthened the link among Iroquoian societies. Fagan suggests that, before the end of the 16th century, Iroquoian tribes of both Ontario and New York established loosely knit confederacies targeting to reduce blood feuds and warfare. The confederacy sole responsibility was to settle grievances among the Iroquoian communities (Fagan 160). According to Trigger the confederacy was a force that replaced hunting bands with larger groups, followed by tribes. Confederacies prevented unnecessary blood feuds; it promoted maintenance of cultural and political identity. The confederacy already existed upon the arrival of the Europeans. Trigger suggests that European contact only triggered the strengthening of the confederacies (Neusis 591). However, there is evidence that he Iroquoians had indirect contact with the Europeans evident from European artefacts located in Iroquoians settlement areas. This as many archaeologists explain is due to the fur trade that took place in the northeast. What did membership in this Confederacy do for its members during the colonial era? The Iroquoian confederacy governed the Iroquoian society. The organisation assisted members of its society in preventing blood feuds. The confederacy adopted a diplomatic policy when dealing with outsiders. The confederacy unified the northern Iroquoians. The confederacy instilled upon members correct social behaviour, which entailed politeness and hospitality towards one another (Fagan 158). According to Neusis, the confederacy resolved conflicts among the Read More
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