Name: College: Course: Tutor: Date: Comparison between “The Old Motto of the ‘New’ Reich: Blood and Iron” (1934) and “The War Cripples” (1920) “The Old Motto of the ‘New’ Reich: Blood and Iron” (1934) by John Heartfield, and “The War Cripples” (1920) by Otto Dix were both works of German artists opposed against the brutality of fascism and Nazism, which had taken root in German society following the First World War…
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Franz Herzfeld’s critical writings of oppressive leadership under the Kaiser made him a target of the ruling elite, and he had to flee the country. Helmut and his siblings stayed with an uncle at Aigens for a while, and then different relatives adopted them. This incident played a vital role in influencing Helmuts, future political stand. In 1917, he launched the publishing house, Malik-Verlag, along with George Grosz and his brother Wieland Herzfelde, where he commenced illustrating books. They calculated their actions to portray rejection of German imperialism (German Expressionism, moma.org). The escalating militarism that initiated the collapse of the Second International in 1914 played a crucial role in shaping Heartfield’s artistic development; because it instigated the growth of social chauvinism. At the outbreak of World War I, majority of the social democratic parties in the Second International shifted their support to the war aims of the rulers of their own countries. Sozialdemokratische, the largest of these parties was the first one to make this betrayal. Heartfield joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in 1918 after gaining inspiration from the October Revolution which occurred in Russia in 1917. In the same year, he Anglicized his name to John Heartfield in protest of the anti-British fervor engulfing Germany. During his tenure as a member of KPD, he made numerous “vote Communist” and “anti-imperialist” campaign posters ridiculing Nazism and its proprietors. Heartfield made his first photomontage in 1924 to coincide with the tenth anniversary of World War I’s beginning. It was known as “After Ten Years: Fathers and Sons”, and depicted skeletons parading behind a German imperial general. The photomontage technique became the most valuable part of Heartfield’s work, making it possible for him to address effectively various issues facing German society. Some of the photomontages he made were straightforward propaganda, whereas others combined political comment with his satirical vision. A good example is the photomontage he made in 1929, depicting himself cutting off Zorgiebel’s head, Berlin’s SPD police chief, and captioning “Use photography as a weapon”. The Workers Illustrated Paper, AIZ, frequently published his artwork. When Hitler rose to power in 1933, Heartfield fled to Britain where he worked as a freelance for papers such as Reynolds News, proliferating propaganda against Nazism. He moved back to Germany in 1950 and settled in East Berlin where he took up doing stage design, book jackets, and posters. He died on April 26 1968 in Berlin (Quinn, 124). Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German printmaker and painter, distinguished for his harsh and ruthless artistic depictions of German Weimar society and the brutality of war. He was born on 2 December 1891 in Untermhaus, Germany. His cousin Fritz Amann, a painter, introduced him to art at an early age. He served an apprenticeship from 1906 to 1910 with a painter known as Carl Senff, during which he began to make his first landscape paintings. In 1910, he enrolled at the Academy of Applied Arts where he studied under distinguished art scholars such as Richard Guhr. He fought for Germany during World War I. He was
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“Comparing The Old Motto of the 'New' Reich: Blood and Iron (1934) by Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/visual-arts-film-studies/1465242-comparing-ypthe-old-motto-of-the-ychnewyie-reich.
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