Free

Theory, Operationalization, and Observation - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Concepts denote the basic building blocks of theory (Babbie, 2010). For instance, social scientists may have a theory concerning the…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.8% of users find it useful
Theory, Operationalization, and Observation
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Theory, Operationalization, and Observation"

Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Theory infers a systematic explanation for observations that relate to a certain aspect of life, and which scientists derive testable hypotheses. Concepts denote the basic building blocks of theory (Babbie, 2010). For instance, social scientists may have a theory concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency. The researcher may adopt the hypothesis that delinquency is inversely related to social class whereby as social class goes up, delinquency reduces.
Operationalization encompasses developing operational definitions, or stipulating the precise operations involved in identifying and measuring variables needed to be observed. Scientists have to oversee their operation definitions so as to guarantee the efficacy of their observation, measurement, and communication. In order to test any hypothesis, scientists must specify the meanings of all the variables involved in the hypothesis. For instance, in the stated example, the variables encompass social class and delinquency.
Variables refer to operationalized versions of concepts. In order to operationalize the variables, delinquency may be defined as “an event of being arrested by law enforcement for a crime,” while social class may be conceived in terms of family status or income levels. After the variables definition, the next step entails specifying the mode to be utilized in measuring the variables (Somekh & Lewin, 2005). In the example, the variables may be operationalized in the form of questions such as “have you ever stolen anything?” The respondents who say yes will be categorized as delinquents, while the respondents who answer no will be categorized as non delinquent.
Social class can be operationalized by posing the question “what was your family’s income last year?” The answer is measured against a set of provided family income categories. The operationalized hypothesis from the stated example can be expressed as the highest incidences of delinquents manifest among respondents bearing the lowest family income category.
Observation denotes looking at the world and making measurements based on the observations. Observation details specifying the precise operations involved in measuring variables and incorporate aspects such as seeing, hearing, and touching. Observations can be conducted to test a certain hypothesis or plainly observe and describe some activity.
Wright, B., Caspi, A., Miech, R. & Silva, P. (1999). Reconsidering the relationship between Social Economic Status (SES) and delinquency: Causation but not correlation. Criminology 37 (1): 175-194.
The researchers first employed the theories explaining the dominant role that socioeconomic status play in sociological explanations of delinquency. In operationalizing the theory, the researchers posed the question: does low socioeconomic status result to high levels of deviance, as stipulated by the theory, or are the two weakly correlated or non-correlated, as per empirical findings?
Their approach was shaped by three propositions, namely: 1) the impact of socioeconomic status on deviance is fundamentally indirect, operating via various causal mediators; 2) through classical criminology theories low socioeconomic status yields a high degree of delinquency, and 3) through some mediators as stipulated by power control theory and social-psychological theories, high socioeconomic status results to high levels of delinquency (Wright, Caspi, Miech & Silva, 1999).
The SES of the members’ families was measured with a six-point scale, which assessed the parent’s occupational status. The scale ranged from 1 (unskilled labourer) to 6 (professional). In addition, the researchers utilized two additional measures of social class, namely: parental education and family income. Delinquency was measured with private, self-reported delinquency interview, grounded on a standardized instrument developed by the researchers. After observation and analysis of the findings, the researchers concluded a lack of correlations between SES and delinquency.
References
Babbie, E. (2010). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Somekh, B. & Lewin, C. (2005). Research methods in the Social Sciences. London, UK: Sage.
Wright, B., Caspi, A., Miech, R. & Silva, P. (1999). Reconsidering the relationship between Social Economic Status (SES) and delinquency: Causation but not correlation. Criminology 37 (1): 175-194. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Essay”, n.d.)
Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/statistics/1600961-theory-operationalization-and-observation
(Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Essay)
Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Essay. https://studentshare.org/statistics/1600961-theory-operationalization-and-observation.
“Theory, Operationalization, and Observation Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/statistics/1600961-theory-operationalization-and-observation.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Theory, Operationalization, and Observation

Observation

...?Social norms basically are accepted behaviors that take place within a society or group. This term is more specifically defined as basic rules or guidelines that a social group observes which dictate what behavior, perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and values appropriate or inappropriate. Based on the different situation and groups these rules may be explicit or group. Another way to look at the concept of social norms is by describing them as customary rules of action that guide our interactions with others. It is important to note that these vary with the passage of time, social classes and social groups. An example of this can be that of acceptable ways of dressing in a society or group, speech patterns or behavior in a...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Variables operationalization

...? Variable operationalization RES500 Research Methods of Health Sciences ABINA RILEY TRIDENT January 16, Variable operationalization Introduction Research defines an organized investigation with the aim of developing a knowledge base. One of the significant elements of a research is the operationalization of involved variables. In this paper, I discus my proposed approach to operationalization by discussing the components of my identified design, and classifying the design. I also explain the reasons for selecting the design and possible bias to which the design is vulnerable. Components of the design A randomized controlled trial is the proposed design for exploring my research hypothesis. The design defines an approach of using... of...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Observation

...? A Couple at the Coffee Shop A Couple at the Coffee Shop Friday evening and the streets flock with people, couples walking hand in hand. The weekend is about to set in, as the fun mood sets in. There is no better way to end a busy week, except by sharing time together. Coffee shops are the best venues for such meetings. With the ample environment to share a good talk, and calmly lit interior, a couple could look for no better place to have their evening out. Many single people find their way to the bars and drinking dens. To them, alcohol and loud music is the best way to relive their weeklong stress. Personally, I find it senseless how one would content with stress from the boss, and still hope to relieve the same stress... A Couple at the...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Observation

...This paper is outlines my volunteer experience in a preschool, called Kinderland. I worked as a teacher assistant at this child development center which is a privately owned child care facility. My first impression when I visited the school was great. Though it is a child development center, the school has nice buildings and the environment is well maintained and clean. I was also impressed to realise that the school has an official website shown here :< http://www.kinderland-cdc.com/>. This is a sign that the school is keeping pace with changes brought by digital communication technology. I also observed that the center maintains a well manicured garden with beautiful flowers and lawn. This school is multiracial and it caters... for...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Observation

...of the English of the Teacher 19 January Observation The Coffee Shop located in the St. Richard Street happens to be a very popular place that attracts people of all age groups. It is a nice place to have a cup of good coffee, to sit down and talk to friends, to work on some short assignment or just to observe the general flow of humanity as people enter and leave the shop. The shop is an ill maintained but spacious place, poorly lit and somewhat shabby with old and creaking chairs and benches. Yet, the good thing is that the coffee and the sandwiches served by the owner happen to be really awesome. The place is run by old Joe, a middle aged man in his early fifties. He is one of those people who have...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Observation

...Lesson Activities al Affiliation) Question 3: How Responded to the Lesson The conversions and exchanges prevailed by the students after the lesson indicated that they responded well to it. This revealed that they had understood the contexts for literacy instruction by correctly using the questions of which, who, how and when. (Weinstein, Pg. 173) Question 4: Relationships of the Activities I Observed to the Reading There is a relationship of the lesson activities to the reading in that they indicated an improvement of the students’ common communication to a content interface. Students’ ability to cooperate in class and fully participate indicated that they had understood the importance of corporative learning. (Kagan,...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Observation

...Number: Whole foods This is a market that specializes in selling of foods that are organic. They include foods that consumed in their natural state, or they have undergone minimal processing. They can be fruits, vegetables, grains or seeds. Foods undergo processing so that they taste sweeter, look more attractive and increase their shelf life. The processing process involves an addition of flavors, preserves or making the food undergo some heat process. These processes change the nutritional content of food by eliminating or modifying some of the nutrients found in the food. Whole foods are widely recommended for any person any time but in most cases those who consume them want to manage their weights. This is an...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Observation

...Observer: Low and high intermediate elementary 4th grade. Teacher: (the person you are observing) (the your observation) May 29, 2014 1. What is the objective of the lesson you are observing? Insert your comments here: 1. Students will be introduced to new vocabulary i.e. time, O’ clock, minutes, breakfast, lunch, dinner 2. Students will be able to review short and long clock hands i.e. one, two, three, fifteen, twenty, twenty-five, thirty, thirty-five, forty, forty-five, fifty, fifty-five. 3. Students will be able to tell time using key expressions from Unit 5: “What time is it?”; “It’s _________.” 4. Students will be able to practice using key expressions through TPR...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Observation

...Number] Observation This observation has been carried out in a coffee shop situated near a local college. The area is a commercial area with other shops around but this is the only coffee shop around. It is a local chain of coffees offering coffees, sandwiches, pastries, and other bakery items in low prices. The observation has been carried out for three days, each for thirty minutes, and different social groups and their interactions have been observed. Since most of the customers were college students who visited the coffee shop daily for group studies, relaxing after college and for short visits in their break times. The interactions were thus, mainly between the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Observation

...that the guest intends to stay at the hotel and the type of the bed preferred. The information was then recorded into the system and a receipt of payment was issued to the guests. Finally, the reception attendant thanked the guests and encouraged them to feel free to ask for any form of assistance. The front desk is spacious enough and hence there is no congestion when the guests are checking in. The attendant served the guests on a first come first served basis. The attendant was in a uniform and hence the guests could differentiate them from the other people. She welcomed and acknowledged all guests with the Fairfield Inn culture of efficient guest service. She engaged each guest and listened to his or her requests attentively. We...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Theory, Operationalization, and Observation for FREE!

Contact Us