Blauner’s Operationalization of Alienation: On What Grounds It Can Be Marxist? Outline Introduction Marx and Blauner on Alienation Conclusion Introduction According to Craib (1997: 88 - 91) and Haralambos (2004: 621 – 623), Karl Marx had formulated a theory of alienation which had uncovered that the capitalist mode of production was shaping the human activity…
Download file to see previous pages...
This was due to the fact that commodities had happened to rule over his everyday activity. Moreover, for him, alienation was an objective verifiable state of disengagement which could be inevitably observed under capitalism. Even if for Marx it was objective, the concept alienation was treated subjectively and was tried to be operationalized by researchers including Robert Blauner through ‘Alienation and Freedom’ in 1964. For Blauner’s terminology, alienation was regarded as a form of job dissatisfaction because the changing of technology, for him, was a significant factor that had influenced the people’s works (Haralambos, 2004: 626 – 628). Although Blauner was not a Marxist himself, his operationalization of the concept had some similarities to that of Marx. In order to find out on what grounds Blauner’s alienation could be considered Marxist, this paper would compare and contrast the accounts on alienation of Marx and Blauner. Marx and Blauner on Alienation Marx’s conceptualisation of alienation basically had four (4) aspects such as the product, activity, species and social. According to Swingewood (2000: 28 – 65) and Giddens (2009: 74 - 77), the existing conditions of the capitalist mode of production had made individual workers to be estranged from the product they had produced, from the activity of production itself, as well as from his relationship with other people. As a result, individuals happened to lose control over their very own human being. In this case, workers could not even claim the product of his labour to be his own. Capitalism had shaped these individuals to function like a machine for the purpose of making profit for buying the commodities instead of his social needs. Meanwhile, labour also put out of place the social relations among other workers. Labour time was nothing but labour time alone. Instead of individuals being free and being engaged in productive activity, they were alienated from their own human nature. The very own process of labour in capitalism was alienating. However, in Blauner’s study of alienation through the use of questionnaires and data of Elmo Roper’s research, he regarded that technology as an important factor that had influenced the work behaviors and attitudes of human beings (O’Donnell, 1997: 262 – 268). Through Melvin Seeman’s psychological aspects of alienation, Blauner’s operationalization of the concept had provided him 4 dimensions as well. According to Giddens (2009: 891 - 892), Blauner’s alienation was indicated by the following signs: first was powerlessness or the lack of control a worker could have over his work; second was meaninglessness or the deficiency of importance or purpose in work; third was isolation or the absence of social relations among the other workers; and fourth was the self – estrangement which was the degree of involvement and satisfaction of an individual in a work. Basically, for him, worker’s attitudes served as signs of the levels of alienation. In order for Blauner to test the 4 aspects of alienation, according to Haralambos (2004: 626 – 629), he had taken into consideration 4 types of industry. Each industry had a different method of technology and different occupational situations. In these industries, he looked at the different levels of alienation. The first type was a printing industry which served as an example of craft
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Blauner's Operationalization of Alienation: On What Grounds It Can Be Coursework”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/sociology/1442747-to-what-extent-can-blauner-s-operationalisation-of
(Blauner'S Operationalization of Alienation: On What Grounds It Can Be Coursework)
“Blauner'S Operationalization of Alienation: On What Grounds It Can Be Coursework”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1442747-to-what-extent-can-blauner-s-operationalisation-of.
The tasks relating to management of an organisation have become more complex comparing to traditional organisational concept. Many critics have defined this modern period as ‘Post-Modern’, because there have been significant changes in the human activities and their thought processes.
It meant a reduction in the struggle for survival since everyone had a role to play (Woodward 2005). According to Karl Marx, division of labor is negative mainly because it is a product of a capitalistic society. When a person sells their labor to the industry, the private owner of that industry becomes that person’s owner too.
In its relative significance for sociology, alienation has been described as the distancing of people from experiencing totality in the social world as well as their own self. Karl Marx was one of the earliest to identify this concept and extensively used it within the perspective of workers and their separation from what they produced.
He regarded that it was a product of capitalist production since individuals had happened to be estranged from the set of people, things and events that these individuals were usually accustomed with, however, as an effect of the system in the modern society, their relations to others would be not as deep as the normal.
In addition, alienation results from the increasing economic relationships that displaced social relationships. On the other hand, Blauner critically examines the idea of alienation through research, and indentifies four main dimensions of alienation. These are meaninglessness, isolation, powerlessness and self estrangement.
In some instances, the force majeure may merely suspend the parties’ obligations. Some events that may lead to the development of a force majeure include rainstorms, fire, civil unrest or even attacks by terrorist groups. A force majeure is important in that it helps contractual parties to avoid fulfilling massive liabilities that may in fact be impossible to perform in cases where the parties remain obliged legally as in the case of Jardinia Limited versus Southern Belles Limited.
The main character in the novel is Clarissa Dalloway and the novel depicts the actions of Clarissa Dalloway as she prepares for her evening party (Woolf 3). Indeed, the entire novel revolves around the preparation and the actual party as well as the events that took place between the preparation of the party and the end of the party.
Working class in itself is not the primary basis of class formation in the capitalist system.
Nowadays, working class is typically described as a representation of a group of people in the society who is
Romanticism relates to a period in the 18th century that was marked a movement in various parts in Europe that was evident through artistic and literary expressions. This period was regarded as a reaction the Industrial Revolution. The
3 Pages(750 words)Coursework
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Coursework on topic Blauner's Operationalization of Alienation: On What Grounds It Can Be Marxist for FREE!