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Examining ethnographic research, it is characterized by participant and nonparticipant observation, focus on natural settings, use of participant constructs to structure the research, and investigator avoidance of purposive manipulation of study variables. For credibility, the canons of validity and reliability have to be addressed when ethnographic methods of research are used. In ethnographic research, reliability depends on the resolution of both internal and external design problems. External reliability tackles the issue of whether independent researchers would discover similar phenomena or generate the same construct in similar settings. Internal reliability addresses the degree to which other researchers, given a set of previously generated constructs, would match with data in the same way as did the original researcher. This is usually referred to as test-retest reliability. Therefore, reliability addresses the replicability of the research findings. On the other hand, validity is concerned with the accuracy of research findings, and it requires the determination of the degree to which the conclusions are effective in representing the empirical reality. Internal validity refers to the degree to which scientific measurements and observations are authentic representations of some reality. External validity refers to the extent to which such representations can be legitimately compared across groups.
In ethnographic research, the results of the research findings are often regarded as unreliable and lacking in validity and generalizability, (Le Compte 35). This is because reliability demands that a researcher use the same methods to obtain the same findings as those of an earlier study. This creates a problem for researchers who study unique phenomena or naturalistic behavior. Therefore, establishing reliability in ethnographic design is complicated by the nature of the research process and data, by
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Goldstein and Marquez are two authors who took the initiative to describe the populations of Latin American experience. They give detailed ethnographies of the two communities according to anthropological studies. Goldstein describes life in Brazilian shanty town Rio de Janeiro while Marquez tackles the experiences of the young street children.
In a dynamic world that runs on numbers, it has become increasingly important for researchers to express populations in terms of statistical parameters. The most convenient way of extracting data from such a population is through a survey—that is, the systematic approach to studying individuals.
e delivery in business organisation 10 3.5 The impact of the Internet on the financial performance of business organisation 11 Conclusion 13 Recommendations 14 References 15 Close A., (2012) Online Consumer Behaviour: Theory and Research in Social Media, Advertising and E-tail; Routledge Academic 15 Haugtvedt C., Machleit K., and Yalch R., (2005) Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Virtual World (Advertising and Consumer Psychology): Psychology Press 16 Joinson A., (2003) Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour: Virtual Worlds, Real Lives; Palgrave Macmillan 16 Windham L., and Orton K., (2000) The Soul of the New Consumer: The Attitud
Most often, according to Thompson (2005), physical child cruelty has little or no visible evidence, with pre-verbal children at most risk of being victims with injuries that are frequently at multiple locations, with varying degrees of a healing stage and in several organ systems.
5) and 762 million visits to primary care physicians (Hall & Owing, 1994, pg. 158) annually. The responsibility to detect potential problems and solve them before a tragedy occurs is a responsibility of us all - the health care providers, an informed patient and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Operations (JCAHO).
The main reason for the choice is to receive honest responses from the interviewees. For questions that are personal, it is always simpler for the respondents to answer anonymously rather than in a personal interview or a telephonic survey
This type of survey is structured wherein the same questions, grouped or categorized according to themes, are asked from respondents. Mail survey is appropriate to use when the target respondents comprise of individuals who achieved a higher