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Parsons Theory of Evolution - Essay Example

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Parsons’ evolution theory holds that the primary disposition of modern society is marked by the escalated development of differentiation within sociological system as a means of grappling with the multifaceted nature of the current world. …
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Parsons Theory of Evolution

Download file to see previous pages... Social differentiation is achieved through the establishment of different sociological subsystems in society ((Trevino, 2001, p.12). Parsons indicates that differentiation permits more flexibility within the system so as to counter changes in the surroundings. Increased variation caused by social differentiation, not only permits better courses for the world, but also prompts faster socio-cultural evolution and specialization in particular values, which are deemed to be best. Socio-cultural evolution refers to a process of choice that arises from the existence of variation, in which case, more differentiation prompts the selection of better choices for specialization. Social differentiation Social differentiation is an imperative aspect of society, more so the modern one. The theory of differentiation has spread, with various quarters seeking to understand the social dynamics of the modern society. Social differentiation embodies socio-structural developments and the processes that dictate the existence of man in society. Structurally, differentiation entails the concept that a societal segment comprises of several unique parts. These segments may have some commonalities, for example a family as the primary segment of ethic societies. Differences, however, may come in the form of other key subsystems that form a modern society such as economy, mass media, and politics among others (Turner, 2009, p.78). The process part of social differentiation refers to the forces that trigger and create changes to differentiation. Background of the Parsons’ concept Parsons’ name has gone into the annals of history as the first prominent theorist to develop a concept of society, which revolves around the functional dynamics as a way of analyzing the evolution of modern society. The theorist perceives society as an integration of its subsystems and processes within the model of cybernetics. Parsons’ evolution philosophies regarding the societal subsystem would be inclined to show specialized qualities and the associated lines of organizational differentiation between the subsystems. Specialization and efficiency Parsons argues that social differentiation comes about as a result of social decomposition or emergence. The theory holds that social differentiation is a process of disintegration of a practically a weak unit such as an obligation, or an institution into multiple, and more functional units of specialization, which enhance efficiency (Elliott, 2009, p.102). Parsons offers a more generalized analysis, pointing out that the conceptual, structural, and functional composition of society are made up of four main subsystems namely economy, government; communities making up a society, and fiduciary system. Each of these constructs plays a vital and specific role to sustain the functional mechanisms of production within modern society. Parsons’ analytical theory has been construed in empirical evidence from studies focused on differentiation in society and specialization of social roles and organizations. On structural lens, the disintegration concept of social differentiation emphasizes the benefits of societal specialization, especially where there are commonalities with the organizational structure. Specialization enhances performance to a great extent, because each social unit concentrates in one area of expertise. For example, if modern learning in educational facilities is separated from the domestic family life, where ancient learning processes were done, both institutions benefit ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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