Observation and measurement, relating to Human Services research Observation and measurement, relating to Human Services research Observation and Measurement, Relating to Human Services Research Researching forms a prominent aspect of the field of social sciences…
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Therefore, it makes sense that SOR follows a technical method of researching a particular topic. One particular method is not used in the research. In fact, a number of methods are put together to address the finding of a certain issue. This process is known as methodological triangulation or multiple method research (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). There are broadly two types of research; quantitative and qualitative research. The paper will not get into details about that. However, it is important to note that qualitative research may include research bias. Therefore, the credibility of the date is at doubt. However, numerous methods have been developed to test the reliability of the data obtained. Moreover, validation of date is also quite important. Hence, the paper attempts to discuss the different types of reliability and validity. Furthermore, it talks about different data collection methods and data collection instruments. Reliability and validity both form important aspects of quantitative and qualitative research. A number of research methods are used to ensure that the data collected from different sources is reliable and valid (Rosnow, Rosenthal, 2008). Patton in 2001 has emphasized that that validity and reliability are two factors, which are important for any qualitative researcher, while the designing, analyzing and judging the quality of particular study. Reliability in quantitative research measures the trustworthiness of a test and the extent to which a test consistently measures what it measure. Different scholars have come to the agreement that since reliability is generally measured as a coefficient and expressed as a number, it has no place in qualitative research (Walker, 2008). However, generally, there are different types of reliability; the important ones include Retest and Alternate form reliability. Test-retest reliability focuses on how much time it takes for the degree of fluctuation of the instrument. It focuses on the consistency factor of reliability that for a test to be reliable, the same results need to come out the next time the same test is applied on that specific group of people (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). For example in the education sector of Human Service Research, the IQ tests can be used to establish links between the IQ level of people belonging to different races, such as African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Internal-Consistency Reliability is another form of technique, which measures the relatedness of individual items on a particular test. Therefore, a multi-scale is used in this case (Rosnow, Rosenthal, 2008). If a person suffers from depression, and if he states that he feels happy on a particular number, and unhappy on another number, this is not internally consistent. Therefore, in order for a person to be completely depressed, then he or she will not be feeling happy about any of the items on a particular questionnaire. Validity is also important in qualitative research. Reliability of the data is necessary for the validation of data. Validity concerns both design and data collection measures. However, Goetz and LeCompte in 1984 have divided validity into two broad types: internal and external validity. Internal validity focuses on cause and effect relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variable (Klenke, 2008). It will look at different aspects and explanations for a particular question, and if there were different explanations, then the question
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