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Critical Review of The Communist Manifesto - Essay Example

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Critical Review of “The Communist Manifesto” The Communist Manifesto is an important document of communist socialist worldwide. At the same time, it is also an important theory material among academics oriented to the ideology. Many works in sociology either respond in one way or another to Marxist thought or are influenced by Marxist ideas…
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Download file to see previous pages Nevertheless, the mere fact that a number of sociologists consider themselves as Marxist sociologists, whether correctly or incorrectly, supplies evidence that there is indeed a Marxist sociological thought. In this review of The Communist Manifesto, we use the material translated by Samuel Moore in 1888 from the German original. The 1888 translation was published by in an offline version in 2000 and is also available in the website. The 1888 Samuel Moore’s translation from German published offline by will be cited as Marx and Engels (2000). In this review, we identify some of the key and most important ideas reflected in The Communist Manifesto and proceed with our critical review using the ideas of Max Weber and Emile Durkheim, two great thinkers in the field of sociology. In this work, we will oftentimes use the term “Marx” to mean “Marx and Engels”. History as history of class struggle. “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles,” constitutes one of the opening lines of The Communist Manifesto. It is also one of The Communist Manifesto’s most famous lines. ...
d, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an interrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.” Marx and Engels added that “our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses however this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonism.” They said further that “society as a whole is more and more splitting up into great hostile camp, into two great classes directly facing each other----bourgeoisie and proletariat.” In contrast with Marx’s idea of class struggle, Weber emphasized on a society glued together based on legitimacy or unity based on legitimized authority (Allan 2005, p. 165). In effect, with Weber’s notion, class wars are avoided because the ruling power is legitimated. Legimation takes place in society making class struggle non-operative. Allan (2005, p. 165) also pointed out that Weber’s notion of stratification is more sophisticated than Marx’s. According to Allan (2005, p. 165), Marx notion of stratification is only based on class while Weber’s notion of stratification is based on class, status, and power. For Allan (2005, p. 165), “Marx defines class around the ownership of the means of production.” Weber, on the other hand, argued for multi-stratification based on class, status, and power and argued that although “a person may be high on of those dimensions and low on another (like a Christian minister, typically high in terms of status but low in terms of class).” In sum, Weber’s notion of class stratification is more complex than class (Allan 2005, p. 165). Further, for Weber, class struggle is suppressed or eliminated because of legitimation. For Weber, change takes ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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