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Relationship of Female Fertility and their Labor Force Participation - Essay Example

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This paper “Relationship of Female Fertility and their Labor Force Participation” intends to present primary data taken from a Survey on the Household Income in the year 1993 in order to have a perspective on the relationship of female matrimonial fertility and their labour force participation…
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Relationship of Female Fertility and their Labor Force Participation
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Download file to see previous pages Figure1. The Average Years of Education among Women in European Countries.
Figure 1 presents an aggregated bar graph with data derived from selected individual countries in Europe. Undeniably, it can be figured out that most women in the Finland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain and UK are investing their time to complete their education. As years go by, more time is consumed by females in their studies or most of them invest in order to earn degree/s. This implies that education have positive impacts to the life of these women, and among the countries presented in the figure, Norway leads in the statistics.
Table 2. The Total Fertility Rates among Women (ages 14 and above) during the
Period 1960 -1995 in Selected Countries of Europe
European Countries
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
Finland
2.71
2.40
1.83
1.69
1.63
1.64
1.78
1.81
Italy
2.41
2.66
2.42
2.21
1.64
1.39
1.26
1.17
Norway
2.85
2.93
2.50
1.99
1.72
1.68
1.93
1.87
Portugal
3.01
3.08
2.76
2.52
2.19
1.74
1.43
1.45
Spain
2.86
2.94
2.84
2.79
2.22
1.63
1.33
1.19
UK
2.69
2.86
2.44
1.81
1.89
1.80
1.83
1.71
The above table provides an idea that the pattern of fertility rates among females if based on the succeeding years in general are significantly declining. The highest rate incurred so far is 3.08 in 1965 and this was experienced by the Portuguese. So far, the lowest fertility rate documented is 1.26 in 1990 and this is manifested by women in Italy. Since it is clearly depicted that fertility lowers as time goes older, then, it is logical to estimate that by the year 2000 and beyond, the fertility rates of European women would be very low....
The above table provides an idea that the pattern of fertility rates among females if based on the succeeding years in general are significantly declining. The highest rate incurred so far is 3.08 in 1965 and this was experienced by the Portuguese. So far, the lowest fertility rate documented is 1.26 in 1990 and this is manifested by women in Italy.  Since it is clearly depicted that fertility lowers as time goes older, then, it is logical to estimate that by the year 2000 and beyond, the fertility rates of European women would be very low.
          Munoz-Perez (1989) investigated the countries: Italy, Portugal, Greece, and Spain. The study (Berman, 2007) discovered the role of economic implications and how it affected the aging and shrinking population.
Note that from the year 1960 up to 1995, there was dramatic increase in the rates of labor participation among female workforce in the above enumerated European countries. At the end of 1995, the labor participation rate in Europe has reached to about 45-73% far above during 1960.
        Whatever statistical record one may scrutinize in Europe, a marked turn down in terms of gender employment gap is perceptible. The said gap has not yet been fully eliminated anywhere, however, in some countries, particularly the Nordics, obtain a very close to a ratio of one-to-one woman to man employment rate (Boeri, 2005). Despite the fact that there is equal opportunity legislation as well as ongoing changes in the countries’ respective social norms, the superior role of women (Boeri, 2005). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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