The researcher of this essay aims to discuss the microtubules through using specific examples. This also tries to describe the structure and function of the accessory proteins, which interact with microtubules, that are class of fibrous proteins formed within a cell…
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aments, which demonstrate diverse turnover rates, are closely associated with actin binding proteins which differ, and it has been postulated that they determine the differences in turnover rates. This plasticity of the internal structure of the actins is responsible for the difference in filament turnover rates in different cellular locations. This is accomplished through direct control of the filament stability and through modulation of protein binding affecting the stability of the filaments (Kueha et al., 2008).
These, therefore, are mechanoskelatal proteins which convert energy released by hydrolysis of ATP or from ion gradients and generate mechanical forces. The most important feature of these proteins that while they bind, they carry their own cargo, and hence movement at a specific direction of this protein as a result of microtubular shortening would result in movement of the cargo from one location to the other within the cell. This allows an avenue of movement of the cellular proteins to the target area where further chemical reaction may take place. Thus, this is an example of accessory protein which in association with the cellular microtubules can cause sliding movement between the microtubules that are adjacent and at the same time causes movement of the cytoplasmic particles along a single microtubule to its target (Gibbon, 1988).
Recent studies on accessory proteins associated with microtubules demonstrate that cytosolic dyneins are associated with retrograde transmission of intraxonal vesicles within neural tissues, and the forward motion of such vesicles is effected by another accessory protein, namely, kinesins. At the same time, within the brain neural tissues accessory proteins have been located which vary in molecular weights and binding...
This essay focuses on the discussion of the microtubules, that on the molecular level comprise of tubulin molecules, which in turn are a heterodimer comprising of globular polypeptides, alpha and beta tubulin which are closely related and tightly linked. Many cellular functions are controlled by these microtubules which essentially are mediated through polymerisation and depolymerisation, which are controlled by nucleotide GTP. Following synthesis, there are molecular rearrangements within these microtubules are stabilized with accessory proteins, which are specific for particular tubulin. In this assignment from different cellular examples, these interactions between the specific accessory proteins and the microtubule molecular structure will be examined in order to describe the structures and functions of these specific accessory proteins. It has been demonstrated in the essay, that within the cell, there is continuous modification of microtubules which is conferred through a process of binding to other proteins. These are known as microtubule associated proteins or accessory proteins. The two main roles that these microtubule-accessory protein complexes perform are stabilization of the microtubular molecular structure against disassembly and more importantly mediation of their interactions with other components of the cell. The most significant and ubiquitous protein associated are ATPases which transduce energy also known as microtubule motor proteins which induce a sliding between adjacent microtubules.
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(Microtubules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words - 1)
“Microtubules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1514256-microtubules.
The cytoskeleton and its network in particular have integral roles in maintaining the cell’s shape, facilitating in cytoplasmic streaming, as well as in the movement and arrangement of the organelles within the cell especially during cell division (Galjart, 2010).
In byline, the author of the article, Daniel Needleman, has said that experimentation has been able to understand the difference that exists in this cell division phenomenon among the animals. This difference is found out to reside on the chromosomal and molecular level rather on higher level view.
Determining the location of the already known proteins may also be helpful in understanding disease mechanisms and developing new drugs. The importance of knowing the location of a specific protein led to the creation of several methods in detecting proteins.
The macromolecular components of the prokaryotic cell are relatively basic compared to their eukaryotic counterparts. Eukaryotic cells in contrast are much more complex and take a longer time to replicate during cellular division. One defining feature of the eukaryotic cell type is the presence of abundant organelles, microscopic structures which serve as partitioned areas of specific activity within a cell (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, 2000).
This theory is most efficient in being able to explain the origin of chloroplasts (in this case a photosynthetic prokaryote such as a cyanobacterium would be the endosymbiont) as well as mitochondria (perhaps an aerobic heterotroph). The progenitor of the mitochondria or chloroplast could have gained entry into a host prokaryote as undigested prey or as an internal parasite after which the "arrangement" quickly became mutually beneficial to both partners (the "host" cell and the endosymbiont).
In the diagram the glycoproteins and the glycolipids are on the X side, which is the cell surface side since, glycoproteins and glycolipids are cell surface receptors and also plays a role in cell adhesion. Thus, the Y side is cytoplasm of the cell.
Integralproteins or transmembrane proteins- Span the membrane and have a hydrophilic cytosolic domain which interacts with internal molecules, a hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain which anchors it within the cell membrane, and a hydrophilic extracellular domain which interacts with external molecules.
AJC disassembly is focus for junctional research because of its own practical implications as far as some pathological mechanisms of certain diseases processes including malignancy are concerned. For the explanation of AJC disassembly two more frequently referred mechanisms have been:
The two processes define the mitotic phase of the cell cycle that divides the mother cell into two daughter cells that are identical (Snedden, 1-48).
Mitosis is a complex process that takes place only in
By using indirect immunofluorescent labeling transient transfection of EGFP-Tubline/EGFP-CLIP-170 plasmid to epithelial cells lines and time-lapse microscop,to show that EB1 and CLIP-170 doesn’t bind only to
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