Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Name Lecturer Course Code Date “Cell Death” All organism are made up of millions of cells that perform different functions under different conditions in their daily activities. These cells are subject to the ‘use – disuse’ theory and as such, they die after some time…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.8% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample ""

Download file to see previous pages This programmed cell death is called apoptosis; where cells deliberately destroy themselves. The events around the death are controlled by the nuclear genes. It begins with the breaking of the chromosomal DNA into fragments then the breakdown of the nucleus. Ultimately after time the cell shrinks and is fed on by the neighboring cells and macrophages. Cells that are damaged for some reason like DNA alteration or infection undergo programmed death. The process removes lethal cells which could lead to undesired mutation or viral spread. The cell might as well die for reasons like starvation, trauma, or asphyxiate. (Geoffrey and Robert, 97 ) Programmed cell death plays a very major role in maintaining the life and health of organisms. It is a normal part of embryonic development. For instance, the fingers and toes of a human are webbed when in the embryonic stage. Through cell death, the webbing is removed through apoptosis. The immune and nervous systems are also largely developed through the same process. (Wayne, 24) The process of apoptosis involves a variety of intra and extra cellular stimuli. When it is induced by extra-cellular factors, it is triggered by cell surface death receptors. These death receptors have cytoplasmic death domains (FADD and TRADD). They are typified by the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily which includes tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1), TNF related apoptosis – inducing ligand recptor 1 (TRAILR-1), death receptor 3ectodermal dysplasia receptor (EDAR), nerve growth receptor and the cytotoxic T-cell proteins like perforin and granzyme-B. The FAS receptor is found on the surface of the cell (on the chromosome) and it leads to programmed cell death. Apoptosis uses it as a pathway. It also uses the mitochondrial pathway (Geoffrey and Cooper, 46) Apoptosis is driven by the impetus of enzymes from the regulated family proteolytic enzymes called caspases. Caspases are made up of upstream (initiator) caspases which are normally activated by death receptor signalosomes, casase 9, activated by the mitochondrial cytochrome derived apoptosome; downstream caspases (effectors) which cleave the involved proteins. Interaction with death receptor cytoplasmic death inducing signaling complexes that contain FAS-associating death domain activates caspases 2, 8 and 10. The receptors are activated by ligands involved in signaling cell death hence supporting cell selection, homeostasis, and morphogenesis and host defense (Carlo, 16) Death receptor ligands include Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NF-related apoptosis inducing ligand, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related molecule 1 and nerve growth factor. The ligand is a homotrimetic type II transmembrane protein of the TNF family. It induces apoptosis through trimetization hence playing an important role in the regulation of immune system. It also has a role in the progression of cancer. It is the Fas ligand that forms the death inducing signaling complex (DISC). Caspase-8 is released from DISC to the cytosol and it cleaves the other effector caspases. This leads to DNA degradation, membrane blebbing and other events that are associated with apoptosis. It is suggested that the extrinsic Fas pathway on its own can induce apoptosis in certain cell types. These cells are dubbed Type 1 cells and are characterized by the inability of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3”, n.d.)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3. Retrieved from
(Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3.
“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Activity Based Costing (ABC)

... Activity Based Costing (ABC) is the perfect cure for the problem of overhead allocation within organisations. Critically evaluate this ment.In general, activity based costing (ABC) has been largely described as an alternative method of allocating overhead costs based on logic rather than arbitrarily imputing cost entirely to resulting production output. Historically, ABC started to become popular as an alternative approach to traditional cost accounting about three decades ago, where the latter has become increasingly proving its irrelevance (Emblemsvag, 2010). The increasing automation of production as compared to being labor-intensive, the multiple product lines compared to small number of products being produced... Activity Based Costing...
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment

International Banking

...?INTERNATIONAL BANKING-LAW AND PRACTICE Task Questions Regulation of Banks 2. Security for secured syndicated loans in an international context NAME OF STUDENT STUDENT NUMBER LAW M591 INSTRUCTOR’S NAME 22ND DECEMBER 2011. Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 1.0REGULATION OF BANKS 2 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Banking Regulation Policy Highlights 2 1.3 Main objectives of bank regulation 3 1.4 Disadvantages to the regulation of these businesses because of the behaviours they encourage in the regulated entities and their customers. 8 2.0SECURITY FOR SECURED SYNDICATED LOANS IN AN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 10 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Overview of Common law and civil law jurisdiction with regard to secure syndicated loans 11 2.3 Different... BANKING-LAW...
18 Pages(4500 words)Assignment

Human sexuality

...? Sociology Sociology Question 1a) If there is one thing that has known variations, it is the things that would draw individuals to each other when starting relationships. Many people believe that as far as relationships are concerned, individuals with shared values or characteristics will most likely be attracted to each other. Others hold the opinion that individuals who are too much alike would not last long as a couple and therefore people tend to look for those that complement them. In quite a number of cases however, individuals are attracted to those people who are different from them since they seek complementary traits in the individual. One thing that you will acknowledge is that as much as these two arguments may look... Sociology...
18 Pages(4500 words)Assignment

Higher Education in Crisis: Whither the University

...?Higher education in crisis: Whither the Introduction Higher education is the goal of most individuals. They see it as a valuable means of establishing successful careers and of landing lucrative jobs in the employment market. Recently however, reports of difficulties in gaining higher education and of establishing rich careers from such an education have become apparent. This paper shall discuss what the university is for and what higher education is for. It shall discuss the role of the intellectual in the 21st century, including the issues and challenges associated with mass higher education. It shall also consider the apparent globalization of western management education. A discussion of the relationship between the labour... education...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Marketing Communication and Branding

...Marketing Communication and Branding Question 1 Q.1. Communication objectives are the factors which support the organisation to move from the present position to a new and improved position. The objective of marketing communication should be SMART, i.e. ‘Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic, and Time specific’. In relation to the case study, three communication objectives can be stated such as: Increase in the awareness among people by around 35% to 50% within the eight weeks from the day the campaign will commence Introducing a sale or discount and creating 70% awareness a day before the sale/discount begin. Reposition the firm to an up market business news paper from an old news paper. The first objective would... Communication...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Philosophy quizes

...?Na me Philosophy Quizzes SS.R 5-9, 11-12 In the dialogue, Plato reveals that death is the event that releases the soul from its earthly prison, which is the body. For Plato, the soul is the real self --- and is immortal --- and that death and dying is a means to release the person's true being. It means that the body will decompose at death, but the soul is incapable of doing so. 2. The Katha Upanishad, according to Yama's teaching, is the passenger of the chariot, which is the body (1.3.3-4). This is similar to the ideas found in Phaedrus or Parmenides. The need for self-realization is the reason behind birth, thus the need for a chariot, which is the earthly body. Once one's desires are fulfilled and begins to love nothing else...
20 Pages(5000 words)Assignment

Human Resource Management in Practice. Explanation of human`s skills

...? Human Resource Management in Practice Table of Contents Developing the Practitioner 3 Communications and meeting skills 4 Presentation Skills 5 Training and Learning 6 Equality and Diversity 7 Recruitment and Selection 8 Performance Management and Appraisal 9 Absence Management 10 Counselling/mediation-developing skills for the workplace 11 Grievance and Discipline 12 Management of Change 13 Reflective Statement 14 References 20 Developing the Practitioner The competitive environment and the quest for excellence in business organizations has necessitated the need to ensure human resource development. In this regard the role of the practitioner assumes utmost priority in an organization. A practitioner in the area of human... Human Resource...
20 Pages(5000 words)Assignment

A comparative analysis between Franklins Caf and Caffe Nero

...?Organizational Analysis and Behavior Introduction: The aim of this essay paper is to make a comparative analysis between two organizations that havethe same industrial background. In this paper, compare and contrast are being done between the two firms Franklin’s Cafe (a small business) and Caffe Nero (a large multinational business). The analysis is done mainly with respect to the two important topics relevant in the organizations. The topics discussed are done mainly on the basis of the case study that helps to answer question like which one of the two organizations would one prefer to be a customer and an employee. This essay paper not only states which organization one would want to be an employee and a customer, but also... Analysis and ...
17 Pages(4250 words)Assignment

Origin and Evolution of Birds Paper

...?Chul lee Blake Animal Biology 102 November 28, Origin and Evolution of Birds Birds are a truly unique set of animals in the world. For millions of generations, birds have constantly been living on earth. As the evolution theory came to being and many scientists came forth to prove it, the evolution of birds was not left behind. Birds are animals that evolved millions of years ago due to a number of factors in order to resemble the modern day birds (Heilmann 2). As more research is put forth on the origin and the evolution of birds, many results seems to be emanating day by day as new discoveries are made. In the recent years, with enhancement in scientific development, much has been able to be got related to the origin... lee Blake Animal...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Marketing plan for the healthcare company (nursing home service)

...?Executive Summary  Marketing has always been the most essential functions for all types of businesses and industries including health care industry.World’s population is growing rapidly and so the number of older people. According to researches and studies, the fastest growing demographic are people aged above 80. At the economic level, every shift in demographics brings economic and social challenges with itself. Even in the healthcare systems, the concept of ageing population adds pressure and demands along with itself. At the level of an individual, increased life span brings several challenges with itself. Old aged people have to face certain types of problems when they are at home. At this crucial stage of life, where... Summary ...
15 Pages(3750 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Assignment for FREE!

Contact Us