quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Name Lecturer Course Code Date “Cell Death” All organism are made up of millions of cells that perform different functions under different conditions in their daily activities. These cells are subject to the ‘use – disuse’ theory and as such, they die after some time…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.3% of users find it useful
Assignment
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
""

Download file to see previous pages This programmed cell death is called apoptosis; where cells deliberately destroy themselves. The events around the death are controlled by the nuclear genes. It begins with the breaking of the chromosomal DNA into fragments then the breakdown of the nucleus. Ultimately after time the cell shrinks and is fed on by the neighboring cells and macrophages. Cells that are damaged for some reason like DNA alteration or infection undergo programmed death. The process removes lethal cells which could lead to undesired mutation or viral spread. The cell might as well die for reasons like starvation, trauma, or asphyxiate. (Geoffrey and Robert, 97 ) Programmed cell death plays a very major role in maintaining the life and health of organisms. It is a normal part of embryonic development. For instance, the fingers and toes of a human are webbed when in the embryonic stage. Through cell death, the webbing is removed through apoptosis. The immune and nervous systems are also largely developed through the same process. (Wayne, 24) The process of apoptosis involves a variety of intra and extra cellular stimuli. When it is induced by extra-cellular factors, it is triggered by cell surface death receptors. These death receptors have cytoplasmic death domains (FADD and TRADD). They are typified by the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily which includes tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1), TNF related apoptosis – inducing ligand recptor 1 (TRAILR-1), death receptor 3ectodermal dysplasia receptor (EDAR), nerve growth receptor and the cytotoxic T-cell proteins like perforin and granzyme-B. The FAS receptor is found on the surface of the cell (on the chromosome) and it leads to programmed cell death. Apoptosis uses it as a pathway. It also uses the mitochondrial pathway (Geoffrey and Cooper, 46) Apoptosis is driven by the impetus of enzymes from the regulated family proteolytic enzymes called caspases. Caspases are made up of upstream (initiator) caspases which are normally activated by death receptor signalosomes, casase 9, activated by the mitochondrial cytochrome derived apoptosome; downstream caspases (effectors) which cleave the involved proteins. Interaction with death receptor cytoplasmic death inducing signaling complexes that contain FAS-associating death domain activates caspases 2, 8 and 10. The receptors are activated by ligands involved in signaling cell death hence supporting cell selection, homeostasis, and morphogenesis and host defense (Carlo, 16) Death receptor ligands include Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NF-related apoptosis inducing ligand, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related molecule 1 and nerve growth factor. The ligand is a homotrimetic type II transmembrane protein of the TNF family. It induces apoptosis through trimetization hence playing an important role in the regulation of immune system. It also has a role in the progression of cancer. It is the Fas ligand that forms the death inducing signaling complex (DISC). Caspase-8 is released from DISC to the cytosol and it cleaves the other effector caspases. This leads to DNA degradation, membrane blebbing and other events that are associated with apoptosis. It is suggested that the extrinsic Fas pathway on its own can induce apoptosis in certain cell types. These cells are dubbed Type 1 cells and are characterized by the inability of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3”, n.d.)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1464352-assignment
(Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3)
Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3. https://studentshare.org/biology/1464352-assignment.
“Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1464352-assignment.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Assignment
With time, people have learnt the many benefits that globalization has brought, from the improvement of the relationship among countries to improvement of the transport sectors in various countries. It has enabled the development of countries that were termed as third-world and second-world ones to be of a higher level.
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment
Assignment
Key Alternatives: Andreas can choose between to leave the job and hunt for a new job with similar position in other companies while looking after his family including children and parents. Or else he could
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
CEOs are not solely responsible for the company’s liabilities, since they are part of its staff. Thus, such CEOs should receive their full payment according to
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
Coping strategies differ with personal attributes, situational factors and availability of these strategies to expatriates. On this basis, authors have tried to determine how time of
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment
ASSIGNMENT
tical risk arises from the fact that a sovereign country can change the “rules of the game” and the affected parties may not have effective recourse” (Eun and Resnick). The post of Susan is correct and she has also provided the definition of expropriation, which strongly
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
Molecules at S0, S1, and S2 have distinguishing characteristics. It can also be studied in an ESP spectroscopy. It involves electronically exciting and quenching a molecule. Polarization helps in identification of
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
" Issue: The legal question that was asked was whether Price Waterhouse had a valid reason for refusing Ann Hopkins a endorsement
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
Ryan is supposed to pay the Company because he had breached a contract. In respect of Restatement (Second) of Contract 241 (1981) clause the case has all elements of breach of contract. Mr. Ryan will have to pay the Company 10 % plus the
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
From the two investment projects being considered by Canadian Metal Company, both have a positive net present value therefore in this case the investment that should be made is the one with a higher net present value which is the oil
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Assignment
may have cash tied in global sales hence increase the company’s borrowing base by considering the inventory and raw materials (Ambrose, Cheng & King, 2010). A good example is the Export-Import Bank of the United States, which is the official export credit bank in the U.S. Some
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Assignment on topic Assignment for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us