quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Cancer in a living tissue is a condition where cell division occurs rapidly and continuously without entering the resting stage. Such cells divide and grow in an uncontrollable and a malignant growth pattern, thus making a tumour…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.3% of users find it useful
Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle"

Download file to see previous pages 2005). Cells in any living organism grow, divide, perform their functions and gradually enter apoptosis (programmed cell death) at the end of their life cycle. This process is progressed through a ‘cell cycle’ which mainly consist of four stages as G1 (gap 1), S (synthesis), G2 (gap 2) and M (mitosis). Cell cycle regulation and cancer are intersected fields and hence treating cancer is more or less done in targeting the cell cycle (Collins et al. 1997). During G1, the cells grow in size and prepare for chromosome replication by synthesizing enzymes for the next stage. In S phase, the genomic DNA chromosomes are duplicated to produce two identical chromosomes (replication) and the G2 phase prepares the cells for cell division and synthesis cellular components required for mitosis in the proceeding stage. In the M phase, the replicated chromosomes are divided through a series of processes as Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Subsequently the cell splits into two identical daughter cells with cytokinensis (Lewin 1990). These cells then enter G0 (resting) stage where they carry on their respective functions or in actively dividing tissues, they once again enter G1 stage to be further divided. Each cell cycle has check points as G1/S and G2/M that is involved in correction mechanisms to prevent any error in this system. Transition through check points are signaled by cyclones and cycline-dependent kinases (CDKs). ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) and ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad-3-related) protein kinases are the leading controllers in DNA damage checkpoint signaling (Nishida et el. 2009). This mechanism ensures any error during DNA synthesis mechanism does not pass through the cell cycle. Cells with any mistake are either repaired before progressing or enter into apoptosis (programmed cell death) if the errors cannot be rectified. The G1/S check point ensures the cells have grown into the appropriate size and the DNA is not damaged while in the G2/M check point it is confirmed that the DNA is properly replicated during the S phase. Another check point in the M stage (metaphase check point), see that the chromosomes are properly aligned on the spindle at metaphase. Any mistake detected in any of these check points force the cells to repair or enter apoptosis. Chemotherapy is an efficient and a widely used method of treating cancer. Here the cancerous cells are treated with anticancer/antineoplastic drugs and apoptosis is induced (Muller et al. 1999). Usually a combination of two or more drugs is administered to the patient to increase efficiency. Chemotherapeutic treatments are targeted to destroy actively proliferating cells since cancerous cells are highly proliferating. This has the disadvantage of attacking rapidly dividing normal cells such as in the bone marrow, intestine and hair follicles and cause chemotherapy side effects as hair loss (alopecia) and inflammation in the digestive tract (mucositis) since the anticancer drugs fails to identify cancerous and normal cells but simply destroys the fast proliferating cells. Chemotherapeutic agents or anticancer drugs are mainly aimed toward cell cycle at ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1429362-introduction
(Impact of DNA Damage Induced by Anticancer Drugs on Both S Phase and Essay)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1429362-introduction.
“Impact of DNA Damage Induced by Anticancer Drugs on Both S Phase and Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1429362-introduction.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Mitigation phase
When it comes to mitigation of earth quake hazard and education certain agents have a common role to play in reducing the magnitude of the loss. The agents like, School board, psychologist, geologist, construction engineer, architect, and politician have something in common to deliver with regard to earthquake mitigation.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Ladybug Cell Phones

The author explains that push strategy put emphasis on the promotional events and activities that create demand by the customer. In this strategy, the product will be promoted from the manufacturer all the way to the consumer. The manufacturer will have the product promoted to the wholesalers, the wholesalers promote the same product to retailers.

5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Rdms. phase 1 db2
(Rob & Coronel, 2002) The initial study is conducted to identify and clarify the scope and initial estimate for time, cost, and the need for the system. So, in addition to examining the current system's operation within the company, the designer must determine how and why the current system fails and gather information and other requirements for the new system.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
This patient had stage 1 carcinoma of the breast with no lymph node involvement at presentation. The patient underwent FEC chemotherapy for this. The chemotherapy was uneventful except for some nausea that was managed well with antiemetic medications. This reflective essay is a journey through the cytotoxic chemotherapy of this particular patient from the perspectives of a practitioner with the aim and purpose to revisit the competencies and knowledge that are necessary to manage such a patient undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy.
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Phase 1
In fact the public relation is increasingly becoming one of the most important areas that have major influence on the overall performance of the companies. In the changing scenario, the management of Global Gadgets Imports (GGI) needs to reassess its
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Mitosis
The two processes define the mitotic phase of the cell cycle that divides the mother cell into two daughter cells that are identical (Snedden, 1-48). Mitosis is a complex process that takes place only in
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
The Cell Cycle and Cancer
The cell cycle is organized into distinct phases in which specific activities occurs towards cell division or replication. The first phase, called the G0, is an inert phase that follows a previous cell
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Ladybug Cell Phones, Phase I
2006). The analysis of a company’s market opportunity is useful in the determination of the company’s prospects in terms of future progress and profitability. Analysis of market opportunity also enables an organization determine
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Mitosis & Cell Cycle: Cancer Treatments
Cancer can affect in any part of body tissues and organs. These include bones, skin, nerve tissue, breast, stomach, colon, retina, and lungs among other areas (Russo & Russo, 2004). This paper explores breast cancer. Breast cancer
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Response phase
There are other kinds of disasters that are started by human beings like riots and terrorism making the normal society functionality be disturbed. For years, people have slowly developed efficient means of dealing with and survive disasters by coming up with precise emergency management procedures.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Impact of DNA damage induced by anticancer drugs on both S phase and mitosis phase of the cell cycle for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us