Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Cytotoxic Chemotherapy - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Introduction: This is a reflective essay about a patient whose identity is has been intentionally kept undisclosed for ethical reasons and for reasons of confidentiality. The patient is a 40-year-old single female who was taken care of in the clinical practice…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Cytotoxic Chemotherapy"

Download file to see previous pages While reflecting, this would enable the practitioner to improve the understanding of the cytotoxic drugs and their roles in management of carcinoma breast, and while undergoing such therapy, the impact of that on the overall physiology and psychology of our patient.
Cell Cycle: The cell cycle is a series of events that regulate the life of the cell. Two main events characterize the cell cycle. The S-phase in which the cell duplicates its genome, and M phase, in which the cell splits into two daughter cells. It is necessary that these two crucial events are regulated and coordinated to occur in an ordered fashion at precisely the right time. The cell cycle has a central role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. This frequently becomes the target of genetic alteration. The accumulation of the genetic alteration may lead to deregulation of these ordered events and may be related to the onset of cancer. Neoplastic transformation is a multi-step process involving the clonal accumulation of genetic lesions that affect proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The mechanism of cell division assures that the cell accurately duplicates its contents, especially its chromosomes. The cell cycle is divided into 4 (Molassiotis, A, Gibson, F. and Kelly, D. et al., 2006) phases. During M phase, the replicated chromosomes are separated and packaged into two new nuclei by mitosis, and the cytoplasm is divided into the two daughter cells by cytokinesis. The other three phases of the cell cycle are called interphase, G1 (gap 1), a period of growth during which the cell determines its readiness to commit to DNA synthesis; S during which the genetic material is replicated, and no replication is permitted; and G2 during which the fidelity of DNA replication is determined and errors are corrected.
The transition between the G1 and S and between the G2 and M are tightly regulated to minimize errors in the replication process. Check points in G1 and G2 that determine whether to enter are regulated by protein kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase or cdk and kinase-associated proteins called cyclins. The cdk family of compounds associate with a distinct cyclin with characteristic substrate specifications, and these are expressed in different phases of the cell cycle. The check point regulating transition from G1 to S is frequently disrupted in cancer. For a cancer to arise, mutations must occur that affect a variety of pathways. Often the G1 cell cycle check point is affected. The expression of telomerase is a common feature in cancer. Overexpression of growth factors and their receptors is commonly detected. Activation of the ras protooncogene or other changes leading to a constitutively active MAP kinase cascade is common. Changes in cytoskeleton and responsiveness to contact-mediated growth inhibition are frequent in cancer cells. Usually when a mutation occurs in one component of a signaling pathway, other mutations are seen in the other pathways rather than in another component of the same pathway (Smith, T.J. et al., 2006). The high level of mutability of cancer cells facilitates adaptation to the environment including the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. As tumor ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
“Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

Neutropenia in the Chemotherapy Patient

...(Cameron, 2009). It has also been shown that the duration of febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumours can be predicted (Matias et al, 2010). The only data needed to provide this information to a patient or a member of healthcare staff is the aggressiveness of the cytotoxic agents used in that chemotherapy (Matias et al, 2010). This has the benefit of allowing both patients and healthcare staff to predict the severity and duration of neutropenia before the chemotherapy is started, and if the system was imposed thoroughly it could lead to a reduction in the cases of neutropenia. It could also allow physicians to make more informed choices about the chemotherapy...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Chemotherapy: High-Risk Complications

...? Chemotherapy: High Risk Complications Wesling Ducos Advanced Med-Surg 6-26-12 Chemotherapy: High Risk Complications Introduction In chemotherapy treatment, the drugs used to cure cancer can have a number of high risk complications including adverse reactions and toxicities. Medical practitioners agree that individual chemotherapeutic drugs may cause specific adverse effects, and the combination of these drugs would worsen the condition. If these risk conditions are left untreated, some of them may become fatal. This paper will discuss three high risk complications of chemotherapy including chemotherapy-related nephrotoxicity, febrile neutropenia, and...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Cancer Chemotherapy treat cancer because of the nature of cancer and the therapeutic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs to succeed fighting against cancer. It is the characteristics of chemotherapeutic drugs that have caused healthcare professionals to make chemotherapy the standard for cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with cytotoxic drugs (cell killing). (Vose) As a rule, most chemotherapeutic drugs work by impairing cell division, effectively targeting the fast dividing cells, which is a characteristic of tumor cells. The disadvantages of chemotherapy are many. One of these disadvantages includes resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs This...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay

Cytotoxic chemotherapytprinciples and care

...). Conditionabihty Of Cancer Chemotherapy Patients. Oncology Nurses Forum,11: pp. 97-102. Little, R.F., Yarchoan, R ., and Wilson, W.H., (2000). Systemic Chemotherapy For HIV-Associated Lymphoma In The Era Of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Current Opinions On Oncology; 12(5): pp. 438-444. Martin, M., (1996). The severity and pattern of emesis following different cytotoxic agents. Oncology 1996;53(suppl 1):pp. 26-31. Molassiotis, A., Yung, H.P., Yam, B.M., Chan, F.Y. and Mok, T.S. (2002). The Effectiveness Of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training In Managing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting In Chinese Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomised Controlled...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Communication in Chemotherapy

...IS THE WAY IN WHICH WE COMMUNICATE INFORMTION TO CHEMOTHERAPY PATIENTS EFFECTIVE Word Count 9,441 IS THE WAY IN WHICH WE COMMUNICATE INFORMATION TO CHEMOTHERAPY PATIENTS EFFECTIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Abstract II. Introduction A. Reason for Study B. Aim of Dissertation III. Critical Review of the Literature A. What they want to know B. When to give the information C. Patient Outcomes D. Provider Education E. Discussion 1. Questions that need to be addressed IV . Proposal A. Introduction/ Background B. Rational C. Aim C. Research approach/ Method D. Timetable E. Personnel F. Budget E. Summary/ General Conclusions V. Works Cited VI. ...
23 Pages(5750 words)Essay

Care of the patient having Cytotoxic Chemotherapy (GM50Z8)

.... Specifically, the main question of this paper is, is the leaflet on Cytotoxic Chemotherapy a helpful guide and preparation for cancer patients and a good source of information for relatives and supporters of these patients? The following paragraphs will be a critical review of “A Patient’s Guide to Chemotherapy”. Target Audience and Significance The leaflet is aimed to guide adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, their families and supporters as evidently mentioned in the first section of the leaflet. Definitely, they are the target audience of the leaflet and not the patients suffering with any other disease or illness. It would be useless to distribute...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Chemotherapy and Antibiotics

...and Chemotherapy Doxorubicin and Daunorubicin Doxorubicin and Daunorubicin are anthracycline antibiotics which originate from Streptomyces peucetius var caesius. They are the most used cytotoxic cancer drugs these days. Mechanism of Action:- These antibiotics act on the base pairs inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II. Thus acting on the base pairs helps in the inhibition of RNA and DNA. They also act on the cell membranes to alter or stop the ion transport which would then cause a change in the fluidity of the cell. It also generates free radicals by reduction through enzymes. These antibiotics are also related to cardiac toxicity because of the production of free radicals. Pharmokinetics:-...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Neutropenia in the chemotherapy patient

...References Chabner, B., Lynch, T. J., & Longo, D. L. (2008). Harrisons manual of oncology . New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. This manual is written togive details on the vast amount of clinical information given to those administrating cancer care. The manual gives information on the medications given to those with cancer as well as information on the side-effects that these may have. The provision of information about side-effects gave a lot of information about which medications cause neutropenia in chemotherapy patients and why, which was relevant to this paper. The reliability of this source was high, because it has been published in many editions and is recommended by several clinicians. Friese, C. (2006). Chemotherapy-induced... ...
3 Pages(750 words)Annotated Bibliography

Chemotherapy and drug design

...Chemotherapy and drug design Introduction Iron is the most common micronutrient in many organisms and serves in many vital functions in the body. It occurs in very small quantities in the human body and even lesser amounts are used by it. On average, an adult has almost 4 grams of iron. The distinctive feature of iron from other minerals and elements in the human body is that, there is no formal way of excretion of excess iron from the body. Although it occurs in small quantities in the human body, it plays critical roles in our health. It has to be in the right quantity in the human body, because its increase or decrease can cause serious health implications (Ferreira, Moura and Franco, 1999). In biological systems,...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Chemotherapy Lounge

...Chemotherapy Lounge Question The ingenious uses a number of metaphors to portray what patients often expect and what nurses offer to their patients. The poem asserts that nurses are less compassionate since they simply administer drugs to patients and walk away leaving their patients to conjure the pain on their own. At some instance, the nurse wears a Halloween uniform in the poem a metaphor that portrays the nurse trying to disguise his identity. I felt remorseful for nurses since the poem misrepresents their roles. I understand that not every patient is always less compassionate. The fact that they attend to hundreds of patients in a day requires them to focus on their work and may always portray them as less compassionate... Lounge...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for FREE!

Contact Us