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Phosgene - Essay Example

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Summary
Phosgene is a colorless, non flammable and highly poisonous liquid. It is the most dangerous among the group of lung damaging agents. Phosgene is known by many other names. Some of these are: Carbonic acid dichloride, Carbonic dichloride, carbon oxychloride, Carbonyl chloride, Choloroformyl chloride…
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Phosgene
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"Phosgene"

Download file to see previous pages At temperatures above 250oC, phosgene decomposes to mixtures of carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine gas (Cl2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Owing to its low boiling point of 7.56oC, it is very volatile and non persistent. "It may remain for long periods of time in trenches and other low lying areas" (Federation of American Scientists, 2007). Phosgene smells of newly mown hay, at room temperature. It is soluble in fatty oils and organic solvents. Its odor threshold is 0.12-5.7 ppm. And its Permissible Exposure Limit Threshold Limit value (by volume in air) is 0.1 ppm (American Chemistry Council, 2002). Physical properties of Phosgene are given below:
Phosgene hydrolyses slowly in water and releases hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Phosgene reacts easily with caustic solution and even more so with ammonia and ammonia water. Phosgene produces hazardous chemical reactions with certain substances. Powdered aluminum burns in the presence of the vapor of phosgene. Phosgene also reacts with alcohols. For example, with 2,4-Hexadiyne-1,6-diol, phosgene produces a shock sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bischloroformate. It also produces hazardous products on reaction with secondary amines. When phosgene is mixed with potassium and subjected to shock, it explodes (American Chemistry Council, 2002).
Phosgene is a highly dangerous pulmonary toxicant. ...
erg/mol

cm
Solubility Parameter
Dipole Moment
Van der Waals Volume
Van der Waals Area
5.64E+04
1.16919
34.9
5.20E+09
(erg/cm3)A1/2
Debye (D)
cm3/mol
cm2/mol
Refractive Index
Flash Point
Upper Flammability Limit
Lower Flammability
1.35609
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown

C
vol% in air
vol% in air
Upper Flammability Temperature
Lower Flammability Temperature
Auto-Ignition Temperature
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
C
C
C
Density
Vapor Density
Vapor Pressure
1.38 (20oC)
3.4
365 (-10oC)
555 (0oC)
1173 (20oC)
g/cm3

mmhg
LC50
5
ppm/1h


Phosgene hydrolyses slowly in water and releases hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Phosgene reacts easily with caustic solution and even more so with ammonia and ammonia water. Phosgene produces hazardous chemical reactions with certain substances. Powdered aluminum burns in the presence of the vapor of phosgene. Phosgene also reacts with alcohols. For example, with 2,4-Hexadiyne-1,6-diol, phosgene produces a shock sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bischloroformate. It also produces hazardous products on reaction with secondary amines. When phosgene is mixed with potassium and subjected to shock, it explodes (American Chemistry Council, 2002).
Mechanism of Injury
Phosgene is a highly dangerous pulmonary toxicant. Its exposure may not produce any symptoms for a long time, and by the time symptoms are detected it usually results in fatalities. Its exposure produces massive pulmonary edema. The routes of exposure to phosgene are inhalation, and skin/eye contact.
Inhalation: This is the major route of phosgene exposure. Since it is hard to detect the odor, there may be prolonged asymptomatic exposures. Phosgene also causes asphyxiation in poorly ventilated places, since it is heavier than air at temperatures above 8oC (American Chemistry ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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