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Theology 101 - Essay Example

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Summary
Perpetua’s understanding and experience of divine revelation resembles Dame Julians in several aspects. They depict divine revelation as possible and not as impossible as some people view it. Perpetua received multiple visions, and so did Dame Julian of Norwich. For…
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Theology 101
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Theology 101 Theology 101 Question St. Perpetua’s understanding and experience of divine revelation resembles Dame Julians inseveral aspects. They depict divine revelation as possible and not as impossible as some people view it. Perpetua received multiple visions, and so did Dame Julian of Norwich. For instance, in her first divine experience, Dame Julian of Norwich received fifteen revelations that centered on the cross. The divine experiences strengthened the faiths of the two and increased their devotion to God. On the other hand, Perpetua calls upon her divine experience while Dame Julian’s are spontaneous. Martyrdom of Perpetua and her Companions record that it is Perpetua’s brother who suggested to her that she could receive a vision. Dame Julian’s vision’s happened after a priest who visited her left.
Question 2
According to St. Augustine, human beings are an embodiment of the body and soul. St. Augustine believed that humans are responsible for their misfortunes because they choose corruptible things over incorruptible ones. In Confessions, he reckoned that he needed continence and chastity but he kept postponing. To Augustine, the soul is eternal and choosing the spiritual is what brings transformation to human hearts and souls. Paul divided human nature into three; the spirit, soul and body. Interestingly, in Romans 7, he uses the analogy of the inner and outer man revealing another one of his perspectives of human nature. Paul believed transformation in human hearts and souls comes after believing in Jesus. According to Paul, embracing spiritual life is the remedy for sin.
Question 3
Champions of the Protestant Reformation took issue with several aspects of the Roman Catholic theology. While, Roman Catholicism taught that the same deposit of faith inspired tradition and scripture, the reformers believed that the scripture was the only authority in the life a believer. The reformers held that salvation is the result of grace through faith contrary to what Roman Catholicism taught that salvation was solely by faith. Reformers held that all Christian believers were priests hence contending that Roman Catholic’s institution of the priest. Luther followed the footsteps of his predecessor reformers in his revolutionary actions. He stuck his ninety-five theses on a church and destroyed the pope’s warning of excommunication in public. Early western reformers remained in church neither executed nor excommunicated because of the hope that they would change their reformation ideas.
Question 4
The Second Vatican Council of the Catholic Church took place between 1962 and 1965. There are several things that dominated the time preceding the council. Bible literalism and neo-scholasticism were on the decline in the 1950s. It was clear that this decline was a result of the Catholic modernism that the first Vatican Council espoused. Bishops were increasingly facing new challenges with every passing day. A final important event that preceded the Second Vatican Council was the announcement of the Pope John XXIII about his intention to have the council. The major areas of reform proposed and implemented by the Catholic Church following the council include changes in the liturgy. For example, more lay people took part in the church services. The second area of reform was change in the office of the bishop. For example, the bishop got more prominence and entered the church college headed by the Pope. Before the Council, change agents proposed change of traditional use of Latin in Mass to English and vernacular languages. Protestant reformers called for the recognition of the work of the Holy Ghost in both the church and on Christians.
Question 5
To point forward to Jesus’ person and ministry as illustrated in his experience with Nicodemus, the author of John mentions Jesus as the word. He explains that after salvation, through Jesus, one gets the power to become a child of God. This was the center of Nicodemus’ contention of how one can be born again. The deity in Jesus foreknew the issues of the Samaritan woman and shed light into her dark life. The young man born blind received of the healing grace of Jesus. The bible does not name the Samaritan woman and the young man born blind because of the despised place of women and children in the Jewish tradition.
Question 6
The origin of Islam cannot be told without talking about the role of Muhammad. He was of Quraish decent, a tribe that lived Mecca that was a meeting place of many traders. Muhammad received visions from the Angel Gabriel, and this became one of the foundations of Quran. He fled from his community due to rejection by some traders, and some people followed in allegiance. He stopped at Medina, and his journey there became the Hijra. Muhammad spread his new faith, and after an angel led him to a mosque, he ascended into heaven after praying with other prophets. After meeting God and seeing heaven and hell, he came back and preached Islamic message.
Muhammad’s visions and revelations became the message of the Quran. Sunni and Shi’i are the two Muslim divisions that resulted from a contention of the rightful successor of Muhammad. The five pillars of the Islamic faith are; faith, prayer, zakat, fast and pilgrimage. The pillars are unifying elements to all Muslims, and they strengthen the faith of individual believers. The Muslim views the Quran as the holy message of Allah given to man through his Holy Prophet, Muhammad. Read More
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