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Mid-term exam - Essay Example

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The most common difficulty faced during emergency evacuations is the failure to plan for congestion on evacuation corridors. Research by the Army HPC Research Center advocates for the use of the Capacity Constraint…
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Mid-term exam Question one The following evacuation plan is based on my hometown area, Willis Texas. Central to this plan is the Interstate 45, which runs through the middle of my hometown.
STEPS
OBJECTIVE
Step one
Identification of available evacuation routes, which in this case Interstate 45 will serve as the central evacuation corridor. Alternative evacuation modes include air and rail
Step two
Assign an elected official the responsibility to speak to the public during a press conference regarding the evacuation timetable.
Step three
Discharge law enforcement officers to the different evacuation points to manage the traffic
Step four
High priority targets for evacuation include special needs people such as patients in both hospitals and nursing homes
Step five
Direct evacuees to designated shelters and provide them with basic amenities such as food, water, and shelter
Step six
Assess damage and after certifying that it is safe for evacuees to return coordinate the return process
Generally, evacuation plans are hard to execute without mishaps. The most common difficulty faced during emergency evacuations is the failure to plan for congestion on evacuation corridors. Research by the Army HPC Research Center advocates for the use of the Capacity Constraint Route Planner (CCRP) to mitigate this difficulty. Central to the CCRP is the ability of this program to assist those charged with disaster preparedness to assess their current evacuation plans, and in turn provide a plausible plan in light of bleak scenarios such as resource constraints and other dynamic conditions likely to deter the execution of an optimal plan (Shekhar, Kim, & Lu, 2005).
Question two
Mid December last year, a hostage situation in Sydney Australia was streamed in major news outlets across the world. According to reports issued by Police Commissioner Andrew Scipione, the number of hostages in the café was unclear; however, five managed to flee before the assailants barricaded themselves inside and hoisted a banner with Islamic writings against the café’s window. The police cordoned off the area, called in the emergency response unit trained to deal with hostage situations, and began to deal with the crisis (Mullen, Ford, & Coren, 2014).. The first step undertaken by the negotiator was to build rapport and trust with the assailant. This technique helps in information gathering, as the negotiator is able to de-escalate tension while simultaneously helping the assailant ventilate strong emotions (Slatkin, 2014). The second technique entailed employing problem solving techniques designed to bring the assailant towards rational thinking. Finally, the final technique entailed coordination with the tactical unit to resolve the hostage situation (Slatkin, 2014). In the above case, the tactical unit killed the assailant, as they saw this as the only way to resolve the standstill. Often the techniques used in hostage negotiating are designed to determine the assailant’s motives in order for the negotiator to comprehend what techniques to employ, verbal discourse, or brute force.
Question 3
Failure to share information across agencies charged with the task of preventing terrorist attacks leads to disastrous outcomes. Case in point is the September 11th, 2001 attack on the US. Before the attack, different intelligence agencies worked independently in the assessment of both internal and external risks to the country. The attack highlighted a major loophole in this system forcing Congress to amend regulations with the aim of encouraging collaboration between different intelligence agencies. The laws enacted included:
USA Patriot Act of 2001
Homeland Security Act of 2002
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA)
Removal of the communication barrier allowed for intelligence agencies to coordinate their efforts with law enforcement agencies to prevent imminent domestic and foreign attacks (AFCEA, 2007). The most effective way of dealing with terrorism entails prevention rather than effecting disaster relief plans after occurrence of attack.
Question 4
The first issue I would discuss is funding whereby I would propose that all stakeholders should set aside adequate funding for financing disaster relief efforts. Often, financial constraints impede the execution of disaster relief efforts in emergencies. Next, I would propose funding of research studies that seek to investigate new intervention strategies, as these will help highlight mistakes in past response strategies, and in turn recommend viable, sustainable solutions.
References
AFCEA. (2007). The Need to Share. Washington: AFCEA international.
Mullen, J., Ford, D., & Coren, A. (2014, December 15). Five People Flee from Sydney Cafe amid Hostage Drama. CNN , 1.
Shekhar, S., Kim, S., & Lu, Q. (2005). A Novel Approach to Evacuation Planning. AHPCRC-UM. Washington: Department of Homeland Security.
Slatkin, A. K. (2014). Training Strategies for Crisis and Hostage Negotiations . Charles C. Thomas Publishers. Read More
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