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Neuroanatomy Project - Essay Example

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The Central Nervous System controls the various intricate details that make everyone unique. The brain controls the personality of an individual: the memories, speech, reactions, thoughts,…
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Neuroanatomical Project al Affiliation) Basic Neuroanatomical Major Brain Structures The CNS (Central Nervous System) isthe foundation and basic system of human existence. The Central Nervous System controls the various intricate details that make everyone unique. The brain controls the personality of an individual: the memories, speech, reactions, thoughts, temperament, and understanding. The brain also processes the senses of human beings: touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision. The brain also the movement in terms of coordination and balance are controlled by the brain. Consequently, blood pressure, heartbeat, and breathing are all directed by CNS.
Tentorium is a thin membrane that divides the brain membrane into two sections. The upper part is termed as Supratentorium while the lower section is termed as Infratentorium.
Supratentorium region
This is the upper section of the brain composed of cerebrum and Diencephalon
Cerebrum
This is the largest brain section and is the main structure in suoratentorium. The section is divided into left and right hemisphere. The left and right hemispheres have unique grooves commonly known as the fissures. The fissures divide the section into lobes. Each lobe has its own responsibilities and functions.
Frontal lobes
The frontal lobes are located behind the forehead; the frontal lobes are main personality and planning center. The lobe is used in storing information that helps a person think ahead, set goals, and makes plan. People’s intelligence, memory, temper, personality, and concentration are found here.
Brocha’s Area
This is a small portion found in frontal lobe left side. The region is crucial for speech articulation and language development. Some of the signs of tumor in frontal lobes include headaches, sudden decline in academic performance, changes in concentration. Social and personality changes and difficulty in comprehending spoken words.
Motor Strip
Motor Strip is located at the back of frontal lobes. The section controls the head movement and parts of the body found on the opposite. For instance, the motor strip right side controls the left side of the body and vice-versa. Some of the sign of tumor in motor strips include paralysis or weakness of one body side.
Parietal Lobes
This section receives and interprets that include temperature, pain, pressure, size, body part awareness, and shape. Other activities include ability to perform arithmetic, reasoning, language control, and hearing. Some of the signs of tumor in this area include memory problems, seizures, difficulty with reading, and language disturbances. Some of the signs of a tumor in parietal lobes include the memory problems, seizures, language disturbances, and difficulty to read.
Temporal Lobes
The temporal lobes help with understanding the spoken words, sounds, emotions, and short-term memory. Some of the sign if tumor in temporal lobes includes seizures, impaired vision, problems of short-term memory, and impaired abilities of recognizing sounds and their source.
Occipital Lobes
This area works as the brain’s visual center, and is used to interpret visual images and meanings of written work (Haines, 2008). The occipital lobes allow people to see objects, identify, and recognize them. The right occipital lobe is used for interpreting the visual signal from left visual space while the left occipital lobe is used for interpreting the visual signal from right visual space. Some of the sign of tumor in occipital lobe include the visual disturbance, blindness, seizures, and losing peripheral vision
Diencephalon
This section is found on the center and deep brain portion and has three small structures called thalamus, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus (Yew & Kwong, 2006). 
Thalamus
Thalamus functions as relay function for every information passing through the brain. The thalamus is used to send incoming data to the best section of the brain for interpretation.
Hypothalamus
This small structure is used to handle information from the autonomic nervous system. Some of its function include controlling the hormone release and pituitary gland, control digestion, eating, and hunger, and regulated the emotions, body temperature, and sleep cycle.
Pituitary gland
This gland is formed from hypothalamus extension. The gland is used for controlling various hormonal functions like growth hormones, thyroid functions, and sexual maturation. Some of the signs of tumor in diencephalon include decreased growth, underactive thyroid, diabetes inspidus, late or early puberty, academic problems, and visual changes (Haines, 2008).
Infratentorial Structures
This is the lower section of the brain composed of cerebellum and brain stem.
Cerebellum
This part is found below tentorium at the brain’s back. The section is commonly referred to posterior fossa. Cerebellum controls the equilibrium and sense of balance by the tone of muscles and senses the extremities position. Cerebellum also coordinates the fine movement of motor and offers a deep perception (Yew & Kwong, 2006). Some of the signs of tumor in cerebellum include balance problems, difficulty in judging distance when approaching an object, coordination problems, staggering, and morning headaches that is accompanied by vomiting.
Brain Stem
This is a relay center used to transmit the messages between other body parts and the brain. Various complex and simple functions that are important for survival are found in this section. The section is composed of midbrain, medulla, and pons (Yew & Kwong, 2006). 
Midbrain
This part is used for hearing and vision. It also coordinates the wake and sleep cycles.
Pons
This part coordinated the facial and eye movement, and connects the cerebrum and cerebellum.
Medulla
The medulla is used for controlling breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and heart rate.
Some of the signs of tumor in brain stem include drooling, difficulty in swallowing, staggering, facial drooping, and abnormal eye movement.
Reference
1. Haines, D. E. (2008). Neuroanatomy: an atlas of structures, sections, and systems (7th Ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
2. Yew, D. T., & Kwong, W. H. (2006). Basic neuroanatomy. Singapore: World Scientific. Read More
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