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Counselling and Therapy - Essay Example

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Counselling or psychotherapy is a process in which a trained professional helps an individual in sorting out his psychological problems with the help of certain techniques that have originated from the different psychological theories. There are many approaches of counselling…
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Counselling and Therapy
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Download file to see previous pages The person centred approach also aims to increase the level of self-awareness but by making an individual aware of his potential or self worth.
Sigmund Freud is the founder of Psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy. Freud believed that our minds are divided into three parts: the id, the ego and the superego. All these three parts have different functions to perform. According to Freud, there is a beast in all of us and it can be identified by our id. Our id works on the pleasure principle and creates a desire to achieve things by unrealistic means in our minds. Most of the individuals are not aware of their ids because it works unconsciously in their minds and also because ego and superego keep a constant vigil on it. The ego is a way of realistically fulfilling the unrealistic desires created by the id. It works on the reality principle and follows the secondary process of thinking. The superego stands for ideals, imperatives and morals. It keeps a check on both the id and the ego. The superego stops individuals from falling prey to unreasonable desires and stops both the realistic and unrealistic ways of fulfilling those desires. In this process there is constant conflict between the superego, ego and id in the minds of people. If this conflict heightens then help is needed from psychotherapists who do psychoanalysis in order to help the mind in reaching to its normal stability.
Since these conflicts go unconsciously in a ...
415). There are several ways in which psychoanalytic therapy is administered. The most important therapies that were developed by Freud and that are still in use today are:
Free Association: This technique was the primary tool of psychoanalysis of Freud. In this technique the person undergoing the psychotherapy is made to talk whatever comes to his mind. His speech might be very trivial, undirected or illogical. Freud believed that if an individual talks in this way then the psychoanalyst could get a feel of his unconscious mind as his ego gets relaxed for sometime. In order to let the ego to switch off for sometime and allow the id to slip out, Freud believed in letting the individual sit on a couch facing the ceiling and making him talk as if he is talking to himself. The psychoanalyst sits at the back so that the person undergoing the therapy does not feel that he is letting his unconscious thoughts known to another person. Through this technique the psychoanalyst just gets the glimpses of the unconscious mind and has to interpret what the individual has said unconsciously. After interpretation he lets the individual know what is going on his unconscious mind and helps him in self-awareness and ultimately in solving the problem.
Dream interpretation: Just as the Free Association, dream interpretation is a method to psychoanalyse what is going in an individual's unconscious mind. By listening to what a person has dreamt the therapists get an insight into that person's unconscious mind.
Interpretation of resistance: Some of the patients who come for psychotherapy resist the process of psychoanalysis. The resistance can either be in the form of showing doubt ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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