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Organizational Commitment - Essay Example

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Organisational commitment involves studying the factors that help promote employee attitudes and behaviours through understanding the psychological links between the aspirations of an organisation and those of the employee. The aim is to ascertain those factors that lead to the development of employees who can be relied on to perform a task in a committed and responsible manner consistent with the goals of the organisation…
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Organizational Commitment
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Download file to see previous pages Correspondingly, an employee's long term satisfaction may be premised on the fact that the inducements and contributions are of just the right balance. It is what occurs when employees become dissatisfied or better opportunities come along, but the individual continues to remain with the company, where traditional theories fall down.
Loyalty is therefore more than maintaining a relationship, it is maintaining this even when inducements come along that threaten this affiliation. It is vitally important for human resource management that the factors leading to such loyalty be identified so employee satisfaction can be more effectively targeted and co-ordinated. A satisfied workforce will therefore encourage both a more productive outcome for a company as well as cutting the cost of finding replacements.
Researchers have attempted to analyse the probable underlying mechanisms leading to positive commitment by way of a number of different theories based upon how human motivation is realised. The human resources view had initially been that satisfied employees would automatically achieve a high level of performance. Subsequent empirical research, however, found this not to be the case. In fact, the data sometimes showed positive, sometimes negative, or even no correlation between the competing factors (Vroom 1964). Various authors have therefore stressed that there is little point in relating overall job satisfaction to a general index of performance.
Over the past decades researchers have been, with varying degrees of success, examining organisational commitment from a number of empirical and theoretical perspectives in an effort to tease out more precisely the likely causal factors. One such approach was Herzberg's 'Two-Factor Theory' (Herzberg et al 1959). This theory is based on Maslow's 'hierarchy of needs' (Maslow 1954; McGregor 1960), which emphasised the importance of satisfying basic physical needs before higher more abstract ones could be met. The notion of a lower level of need having first to be met, however, was shown to be not always the case and the theory did not take into account a whole range of variables such as personality traits, skill level etc., (Pinder 1984). Herzberg recast Maslow's theory in what he termed 'general laws of job attitudes' concerning such things as achievement, recognition, responsibilities, promotion, prospects, and salary, which lead to feelings of 'self-actualisation'. Herzberg attempted to show how an employee's need is internally driven and, by understanding this, total commitment to the organization could be ensured and production levels thereby improved. As this theory is individualist in outlook and stems from a psychological/biological perspective, it takes a generalist stance linking the particular to the general (inductive) and was therefore deemed to be applicable to any situation. In this regard, it is held to apply across ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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