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Nature and Nurture - Essay Example

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It has been discussed for a long time if the personality, talents and character are inherited or obtained with the upbringing and education. It is evident that the physical qualities are determined by the genes, but as far as the behaviour, character, intellect are concerned, the matter is not so clear…
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Nature and Nurture
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Download file to see previous pages It is customary to use the word "nature" for the set of physical factors, influencing the traits that are inherited, and "nurture" for the environment, learning and experience. There are the theories that are connected to these notions. The nature theory is based upon the information that the traits peculiar to the physical conditions of the human being, such as colour of the hair or eyes, are defined by the specific genes, which are included into the human cell. This theory goes further and supposes that the features of the identity, such as intellect or character are also encoded in the genes. The nurture theory doesn't reduce the meaning of the genotype, but attaches importance to the role of the environment. The scientists that support this theory assume that the models of people's actions are determined by the learning, experience and family. (4)
Numerous examinations of human genome led to the conclusion that both theories are partially right. The nature gives us certain inborn capacities and characteristics; environment uses these inherited features and designs them in the process of brining up and getting experience. But as long as the meaning of these two components in the process of forming the identity is not clearly set, the debates over nature and nurture still go on.
The main question that is to be solved is as follows: are the mod...
A definite gene can increase the probability that a person will act in a particular way, but it cannot compel a human to do in this or that way. This means that it still depends upon a human to choose this or that model of behaviour.
The results of the IQ tests are contradictory - the twins that have been separated just after the birth have similar IQ level, thus letting us assume that the nurture doesn't play a significant role. But the same IQ tests that are delivered from time to time prove that each generation gets higher scores compared to the older ones. This result seems to demonstrate that the education and experience influence us. This paradox was discovered in 1987 by J. Flynn, and now it is called "the Flynn effect". (2)
But this paradox may stop its existence. Flynn and his colleague W. Dickens wrote a Psychological Review article, saying that it is not the influence of one of these factors that defines or identity, but both these elements. To put it differently, both genotype and nurture determine our cognitive capacities, and the meanings of these factors are interrelated. Genotype may provide a person with definite benefits, but these benefits are enlarged by the learning and experience.
For example, if the person is born with an IQ level that is a little higher than average statistical level, he is probably to like learning, reading and mental activity in general. As a result, this person would devote much time to these activities, thus adding much to the capacities that were given to him by nature. Then the process goes on, and due to the cognitive benefits this person devotes more and more time to mental activities, find people of higher level of education to communicate with, and all this will also add to his ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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