Nobody downloaded yet

Neurophysiology of sleep - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
It is thought that for cerebral representations to be modified or updated, the cells over the whole cerebral cortex should become modifiable, and that at such times ordinary information (from the external environment) should be rigorously excluded. The time when such a condition normally exists is during sleep.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
Neurophysiology of sleep
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Neurophysiology of sleep"

Download file to see previous pages It is thought that mental activity takes place during D/REM and S/NREM sleep, but that the mental activity during D/REM sleep is the most dream-like, while that occurring during S/NREM sleep is much more awake-like. Consequently, it is the D/REM sleep phase that is thought to be correspondent with the actual experience of dreaming, while the subsequent S/NREM phase is correspondent with mental activity related to the experience of the preceding dream phase. (Marjorie L. Rand, 2002)
Normally, dream sleep appears at 70-90 minute intervals throughout the sleep period in adults. There is, however, evidence that the physiological and neurophysiological activity normally correspondent with dream sleep also occurs with the same periodicity, but less intensely or evidently, throughout the awake state.
Underlying the two psychological systems considered to interact during the process of dreaming may be two physiological or neuroanatomical systems. Dream sleep may involve the preponderant or emergent activity of a neuroanatomical region different from the region that normally is preponderantly active in the awake state. (Cheryl H. Alexander, 2000).
One factor thought to contribute to the onset of sleep, particularly dream sleep, is a reduction of externally generated stimuli that reach the higher and conscious level of the brain. As a result of this reduction there may be facilitated a release of internally generated past impressions or memories from within the lower neuroanatomical and unconscious levels. Within the higher, or cerebral, level of the brain, the emergence of information released from the lower level may also involve a decreased activity of processes, or switching off of the system that would normally in the awake state inhibit such preponderant emergence. (Edmund T. Rolls, 2000).
Relative to the S/NREM sleep phase, the D/REM sleep phase is accompanied by increased cerebral blood flow; increased activity of the autonomic nervous system; increased "spontaneous" activity of the reticular formation; a higher response threshold in the midbrain reticular formation to auditory as well as direct stimulation; and a higher threshold for behavioral awakening. (Simon J. Sherwood, 2002).
Among the phenomena evident during D/REM sleep are cerebral desynchronization; hippocampal theta waves of 5-6 Hertz, a depression of spontaneous and reflex activity in the muscles and a general atonia, especially of the antigravity muscles. The preceding phenomena constitute a tonic background on which are superimposed the following phasic phenomena: large amplitude waves occurring in the pontine reticular formation, lateral geniculate nuclei and occipital cortex, which are referred to as PGO activity and which normally occur coincidentally with REM bursts; short-term increases in the frequency of the hippocampal theta rhythm; increased muscle activity and myoclonic twitches; and short fluctuations within the autonomic nervous system. Also involved in D/REM sleep are the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, the cerebral limbic regions, and the pulvinar of the thalamus. (Elena Miro, M. Carmen Cano, Lourdes Espinosa-Fernandez, Gualberto Buela-Casal, 2003).
Both the tonic and phasic phenomena of dream sleep may be regarded basically as an ascending excitatory component ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Neurophysiology of sleep Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words”, n.d.)
Neurophysiology of sleep Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words. Retrieved from
(Neurophysiology of Sleep Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words)
Neurophysiology of Sleep Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words.
“Neurophysiology of Sleep Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Neurophysiology of sleep


...Sleep Part I Sleep is an expression referring to that regular situation that has behavior change that has thecharacteristics of ease in reversibility, relative quiescence, as well as significant rise in the thresholds of response. (National Research Council (US), et al, 1987p9) Scientists are yet to unravel exactly why we sleep. As a matter of fact humans can survive for a longer duration without eating than without sleeping. Birds, animals, as well as reptiles alike sleep. According to scientists these mentioned theories discuss why humans sleep. Sleep might be a way through which brain recharging is achieved. Also,...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Sleep Apnea

...? Sleep is determined by ordinary brain action. An individual needs to have a definite quantity of deep sleep for his or her mind and body to be entirely refreshed. Having only restricted occurrences of deep slumber will leave an individual feeling extremely tired the following day. In order to purpose appropriately, most adults require about 7-8 hours of sleep. Approximately 15-25% of that moment should be used up in the deepest stage of sleep, identified as sluggish wave sleep. The most widespread sleep apnea is dubbed Obstructive Sleep Apnea condition. Sleep apnea depicts termination of panting. It is...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper


...?Sleep Sleep is an important part of the living process which every human being goes through. It comes about as a period of rest and recovery from the dire demands of wakefulness. This is essentially a state of unconsciousness where the individual does not know about the worldly affairs that surround his entirety. There are states of partial consciousness which can be revoked by stimulation. A person spends about one-third of his life whilst sleeping. Sleep is significant for every person because it recharges his body and mind. It makes him fresh because it is a crucial ingredient that goes into delivering work regimes on an out and out basis. There are some health...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Sleep and Sleep Disorder

...Sleep and Sleep Disorder Introduction Sleep is a vital component in human life. Some people fail to have enough sleep because of several factors that include health issues like sickness and stress. People having difficulties in sleeping are said to have sleep disorders. Doctors and psychologists advice people to get enough sleep as much as possible to boost their health while going about their activities normally. Each individual experience sleep disorders at different rates depending on age, sex and their daily activities together with the external factors. Scientists cannot generalize the causes of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Sleep Paralysis

...Sleep Paralysis. Introduction. Sleep Paralysis is among many, one of the most widely talked about and feared sleep disorders. Intimidating as its effects seems to be, it appears to be getting equally worrying for researchers having had discovered no exact causes for the phenomenon. J. A Cheyne1 who has done an extensive research on sleep paralysis in his website defines the occurrence as “ a condition in which someone, most often lying in a supine position, about to drop off to sleep, or just upon waking from sleep realizes that s/he is unable to move, or speak, or cry out.” The experience might often accompany with the feeling of an...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Sleep dreaming

...Axia College Material Appendix C The Sleep Matrix Why do we sleep? What governs when or how long we sleep? This activity will assist you in understanding two common sleep theories, recuperation and circadian, which provide different answers to these questions. Depending on which one you support, it may change your outlook on sleep and your current sleeping habits. Categorize each characteristic under the correct theory—recuperation or circadian—by placing an “X” in the appropriate column. Then, answer the questions that follow. Recuperation Circadian Sleep restores the body to a state of...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment


... Psychology 19 July Sleep Introduction Sleep is essential to life and health, but people are more inclined to deprive themselves of sleep than of water, food, and air. The body demands for sleep can be resisted or even ignored more easily than hunger, thirst, and the need for air. An average person needs one hour of sleep for every two hours of wakefulness (Honeycutt and Milliken 66). 2. Human Sleep Cycle Numerous body functions involve specific rhythms or cycles known as biorhythms. The need to sleep is a human body want. This need is regulated by the brain circadian pacemaker. The circadian pacemaker is influenced by the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As the sun sinks in the sky, it follows that daylight shifts to dusk... , and then into...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Sleep apnea

...Case Study Case Study The client has signs that raise suspicion for sleep apnea. There are several features in the patient’s history which point towards this preliminary diagnosis. Firstly, the patient has tiredness even after sleeping throughout the night. In addition the patient is reported to be a very loud snorer which can be heard by the children. Furthermore, the patient has long cessation during breathing and hypertension. These are all signs which can be found in Obstructive Sleep apnea. Disruptive snoring is common in the majority of patients with this disorder and has 71% sensitivity. However, the patient also has witnessed apneas as the wife stated and the combination of these two factors is more sensitive in placing... this...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Sleep health

...Sleep Health: Increasing the proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep Grade (October 1st, Increasing the proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep Introduction Sleep is an essential aspect of human health. The importance of sleep on the body can be compared to that of exercising, considering that there are natural limitations to the human wellbeing that are associated with sleep deprivation. The most obvious negative implications of insufficient sleep on the body include low productivity, fatigue and stress (Healthy, 2014). However, it is not just sleep, but routine and planned...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper


...Sleep How relevant is sleep to your PERSONAL Lifestyle? Sleep is a critical aspect of humanity. It helps in rejuvenating one’s mental and physical energy for undertaking daily activities. My personal lifestyle as a student emphasizes allocation of more time to study and partial leisure before sleeping. I believe in taking about six hours of sleep to freshen up my mind, get physical energy by eliminating fatigue. For a learner like myself, six hours of sleeping makes me wake up with significant morale to face the next day activities with ease. 2. Are you getting enough? I do get enough sleep by allocating six hours. This...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Neurophysiology of sleep for FREE!

Contact Us