Case Conceptualization Sam Dawson - Research Proposal Example

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Sam Dawson, A character in the movie “ I am Sam”, is mild mental retarded with Obsessive compulsive disorder and autism. The cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for him incorporates self-instruction, modeling, problem solving and relaxation techniques. …
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Download file to see previous pages The psychological techniques, mostly, address the issue of improving visible behavioral problems. The cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) improves both the visible defects in behavior as well as the thoughts of a retarded client. The components of the technique, to be used for Sam, are (Benson, 1986 as cited in Benson & Valenti-Hein, 2001) and as elaborated by Chapman, Shedlack and France (2006). These include:
1. Self-Instruction: The client is helped to phrase his/her own sentence and then encouraged to repeat it correctly. The correct repeats are given praise or some other reinforcer. The aim is to make patient understand his own words.
2. Problem Solving: In CBT, many potentially effective responses are presented and the patient is encouraged to select the best response. The problem solving steps involve identification of the problem, Identification of solutions, evaluate the solution and enact the best solution. The therapist gives one solution and asks the patient whether he can give any other solution.
3. Modeling: It is learning through observation. The therapist, someone favorite or a parent serves as a model. The model approaches a fearful object or situation and feels no anxiety or fear. The client is then asked to approach the fearful object either guided by the trainer or all by himself.
His response is recorded.
4. Relaxation Training: It is a very important training to reduce anxiety as the mentally retarded particularly the dual diagnosed with OCD and Autism have high anxiety and distress levels (Russell, Mataix-Cols & Anson, 2005). The deep diaphragm breathing and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), counting to ten or thinking about some pleasant event or pictures are used to accomplish reduction in anxiety. Throughout training, the therapist should use simple language, demonstrate the process, guide and when the patient does well he should be given positive reinforcer to motivate (Benson 1986; Chapman, Shedlack & France, 2006).
TREATMENT SESSIONS: The sessions are divided as follows and each preceding session is reviewed in the next session:
Session - I
Introduction & Self-instructions: Sam is introduced to his training program of six sessions and asked -How does he feel about it To improve the communication of Sam, a variety of self- instruction statements are taught to him viz., self-affirmation (I can do it), self-control (breath deep and say relax). For people with limited vocabulary verbal or non-verbal picture prompts may be used. He is told to repeat the sentences. A correct response is praised to motivate him.
Session- II
Identify emotions and Situations: Initially the patients are taught to identify feelings of happiness, sadness and anger. The clients must first know when they are angry or sad to learn self -control. A known, preferably a favorite person acts as model and approaches a fearful situation without feeling any fear or anxiety. The trainer, then, puts a problem and clients find a solution. They enact it and receive feedback.
As a result of such modeling the patient learns new behavior, fearful or avoiding behavior is reduced and already learned behavior is improved. Modeling reduces fear of meeting strangers, entering into stores or using escalators and self-injurious behavior (Benson, 1986 as cited in Benson & Valenti-Hein, 2001) and (Chapman, Shedlack ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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