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Shaping of Psychology - Essay Example

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This paper will address the significant theories developed that helped position the foundation of psychology as its own field of discipline.It will tackle many of the noteworthy discoveries pertaining to social issues of the period …
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Download file to see previous pages It will tackle many of the noteworthy discoveries pertaining to social issues of the period and the solutions to everyday problems. This paper will also highlight the significant events that warranted and helped stimulate interest in the concerns of the times. These concerns include: education, child rearing, mental health, health and the shift of perceptions of each. The intellectual world in the Middle Ages was primarily sustained by the Church and the Medieval philosophy was infiltrated with the ideas of Christianity (MacDonald & Kretzmann, 1998). But Aurelius Augustine, a philosopher and theologian, had much to say about the education of children. He recognized that punishment does little in helping a child to learn. As Viney and King (2003) revealed, Augustine went so far as to say that threats do more harm and actually interfere with the learning process. The philosopher also shared his thoughts on addiction. He concluded that the use of criticism and reproach aids in addiction to alcohol. Benjamin Rush, a founding father of the United States, pioneered the approach to treating alcoholism as a disease, shifting the belief that it was sinful and that people chose to be addicted (Viney & King, 2003). Another major event was the deadly arrival of the bubonic plague known as the “Black Death,” that devastated Europe and killed millions. ...
Besides, it also helped develop rights for the peasants, as was evident with a peasant uprising and the increased emphasis that they placed on their civil liberties. The recognition and critical thinking movement in respect of social issues were further exercised by the re-discovery and circulation of the Greek manuscripts in Europe. These manuscripts were finding their way into the hub of learning centers. They helped advance the departure from the traditional dependence on clergy, as well as establish interest in human problems (Viney & King, 2003). There was increased interest in the Classics because people really wanted objective solutions to their social issues that they had been encountering for long. The cultural movement of the Renaissance introduced many reforms within the intellectual realm of scholars and civic leaders. As Viney and King (2003) showed, the period saw a de-emphasis on the religious thinking of “free will” and focused more on learning, intellect, and aptitude because any advanced learning other than the biblical teachings in those ages was discouraged (MacDonald & Kretzmann, 1998). It was also an era that was showing great interest in mental health. Even with this new focus, the Baroque period was peppered with witch hunting (Ellenberger, 1970, p. 194). The movement meant to be full of growth still lacked the more scientific thinking to dispel superstition. Baruch Spinoza reasoned that the idea of witches was a fallacy and that no other forces were responsible for their behavior. It was not until Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, introducing a naturalistic approach to emotional disorders, that a firmer ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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