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Human Behavior - Essay Example

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Human Behavior Table of Contents Answer to Question 2 3 References 8 Answer to Question 2 At two years and eight months, Robert’s development falls under the autonomy versus doubt and shame stage in Erikson’s psychosocial development stages model/paradigm…
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Download file to see previous pages A telling sign is Robert’s inability to successfully become toilet trained in an independent fashion. It is likewise telling that Robert is able to utilize the toilet properly only in the presence of his mother Tisha. This is a sign that Robert has failed to develop the necessary autonomy to be able to learn the skills necessary to use the toilet on his own. Moreover, from Robert’s relative good command of his motor faculties, as evidenced by his ability to be able to control his own movements with good coordination, to walk and to run with success on his own, it can be said that his inability to use the toilet without Tisha’s supervision is not due to a physical inability. These case facts and accompanying analysis all point to Robert largely failing to hurdle the challenges of development in this stage of the Erikson model. In short, Robert has failed to achieve autonomy. The development stage is marked by doubt and shame, a marked deficiency. It is noteworthy that the literature mentions toilet training as a milestone event in this stage. The ability to dress oneself is another important milestone. That the case highlights the shortcomings of Robert in these areas is an obvious sign of Robert’s general failure to successfully achieve autonomy as required in the Erikson model for the Autonomy versus Doubt and Shame stage (Cherry, 2012; Davis and Clifton, 1995; AllPsych, 2003; Grove, 2012). Taking a step back, we analyze Robert in the context of Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development, and that is the Trust-Mistrust stage. It is to be noted in the case that Tisha was able to nurse Robert for three months, after which Tisha’s work got in the way, and Tisha’s mom had to take over with the job. That care giving by the grandmother had been done poorly, as evidenced from the way the case described Tisha’s mom as being generally lacking affection towards the children. Mapping these case facts with Erikson’s model, the lack of affection from the grandmother or Tisha’s mother is a telltale sign. As indicated in Erikson’s model, this lack of sustained affection is a factor in infants not successfully hurdling this initial Trust versus Mistrust stage, and infants being unable to develop that important sense of trust. That Tisha likewise had to leave him early contributed to this. Tisha’s leaving him at three months must have contributed to Robert developing a sense that the care that he is getting is neither constant nor reliable, nor affectionate. The case facts contribute to the conclusion that Robert did not receive the proper amount of constant care and affection to be able to hurdle this first stage. What developed in the absence of trust is this sense of mistrust and of fear that is expected of children like Robert, growing up in the way that he did during the first few months of his life. Moreover, it does not help that physically and developmentally, Robert had to deal with the consequences of Tisha’s use of alcohol, cigarettes and amphetamines, all substances that could have impaired his normal fetal development. Robert was born with these severe handicaps that were further compounded by gaps in his rearing during the first few months of his life. The consequences of the substances use by Tisha was evident first and foremost in the suboptimal physical birth characteristics of the infant- low birth weight, unusual silence and passivity, and developing the ability to walk at around two years. It is also notable that the lack of proper medical care during those ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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