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Finalise a report on Cyber Bullying - 3/4 completed - Research Paper Example

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CYBER BULLYING AND CYBER VICTIMIZATION [Your name here] [Name of university] [Due date of paper] Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization Abstract The aim of this research was to assess whether cyber bullying (CSB) and cyber victimization (CSV) scales measure a single concept or a number of related concepts…
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Finalise a report on Cyber Bullying - 3/4 completed

Download file to see previous pages... On the other hand, cyber bullying is positively correlated to physical aggression, social victimization, neuroticism, anger, hostility, and social anxiety, whereas it was negatively correlated to openness, self-esteem, and agreeableness. The overall results suggested that cyber bullying (CSB) and cyber victimization (CSV) are correlated terms. Introduction Cyber bullying is the type of harassment that is done through electronic means. As Menesini and Nocentiti (2009) state, ‘cyberbullying is growing around the world’ (p. 230). According to Perren, Dooley, Shaw, and Cross (2010), it presents challenges to victimized people. It gives rise to stress, aggression, and other negative feelings in the targeted person (Moore, Huebner, & Hills, 2012). Cyber victimization, on the other hand, refers to ill-treatment or exploitation and has its connection with psychosocial maladjustment (Card & Hodges, 2008). Both cyber bullying and cyber victimization are somewhat interrelated concepts and are aimed towards victimizing some other person or a group of people through the Internet, cell phones, and other communication tools and equipment (Smith et al., 2008, p. 376; Cetin, Yaman, & Peker, 2011; Tokunaga, 2010). In this paper, I will assess whether the concepts of cyber victimization (CSV) and cyber bullying (CSB) measure a single concept or a number of related concepts. The constructs that the scales would measure include hostility, social victimization, verbal aggression, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, agreeableness, anger, social anxiety, openness, and physical aggression. These constructs are the real outcomes of cyber bullying and victimization (Menesini, Nocentiti, & Calussi, 2011). Therefore, I will measure all of them to determine their connection with cyber bullying and victimization. I will use two different hypotheses to determine the level of similarity between the two concepts. Hypothesis for Convergent Validity For convergent validity, I hypothesized that CSB would correlate positively with Buss-Perry measures and negatively with agreeableness, whereas CSV would correlate positively with social victimization and negatively with self-esteem. Hypothesis for Divergent Validity For, divergent validity, I hypothesized that CSB would not correlate with five-factor measures or anxiety and CSV would not correlate with Buss-Perry. Factor Analysis I used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) instead of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE). The main reason that made me use PCA instead of MLE was that I considered the analysis exploratory rather than confirmatory. For an exploratory analysis, PCA is considered a better option. MLE, on the other hand, is better for confirmatory analyses. MLE requires a larger sample size than PCA, in particular, to avoid the risk of type 2 error. In order for type 2 error rate to be in the acceptable range, one would need at least 390 to 650 participants (minimum 30 to 50 cases per independent variable and 13 independent variables). Another reason that made me use PCA was that PCA aims to maximize the variance explained. It does not assume that all variance will be explained by the factors (Murray et al., 2009). Discussion From the results, we came to know that CSB and CSV scales were positively correlated. Excluding CSB F2, CSV F1, and CSV F3, all subscales ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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