Nobody downloaded yet

The historical and conceptual development of intelligence tests in psychology during the modern period - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
According to David Wechsler, intelligence is defined as “The global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment” (Coon, 2009). However, there are differences in approach and conceptions of intelligence have also been changing. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
The historical and conceptual development of intelligence tests in psychology during the modern period
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The historical and conceptual development of intelligence tests in psychology during the modern period"

Download file to see previous pages Special psychological tests are devised to measure this quality of intelligence. An intelligence test is essentially an instrument designed to indicate how intelligent a person is. Many such tests have been devised, but their purpose is similar: to measure people’s intelligence. Over time however, the concept of psychological testing has been applied in various areas other than intelligence such as personality assessment. The other uses of intelligence tests have been to detect and analyse mental and personality disorders and illnesses.
The measure is usually in the form of a score or category. A high score indicates a high degree of intelligence and a low score indicates a low degree. However, this is dependent on the quality of the test. It should therefore be interpreted accordingly. The score’s acceptability is dependent on two important criteria: reliability and validity. Reliability can be checked, for example, by retesting, and validity can be checked, for example, using factor analysis. Anne Anastasi also described an intelligence test as being ‘objective’ and as providing a ‘standardised’ procedure for measuring behaviour (Banerjee, 1994). Thus, many people besides psychologists and psychiatrists, such as teachers and health professionals, also use them.
Intelligence is usually measured either for classification, evaluating educational programs, or undertaking scientific investigations. In a classification, the person is indicated as belonging to a certain category. In evaluating programs, the objective is to evaluate its effectiveness. In the case of research or investigations, greater precision is usually required, so the test must be carefully constructed. People also use intelligence tests for self-assessment purposes to gain a better understanding of their intelligence or to compare with others. Most tests nowadays are based on comparing the scores of groups of people. Sir Francis Galton first developed this type of test, known as a norm-based test, in the 1800s. The data is usually interpreted according to a normal frequency distribution (a bell curve). Galton was most likely influenced by physiognomy, as he was interested in other individual differences too, such as head sizes. He focused on reaction times and made various sensori-motor measurements (Wilderdom, 2005). His useful contribution was in demonstrating how measures of central tendency and variability could be used in intelligence testing for describing the data and the concept of correlation. Despite Galton’s specialisation in the psychology of individual differences, importantly, he seems to have overlooked nature factors, such as inherited traits, and nurturing factors, such as education and environmental influences. He was also influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution and tried to examine it in terms of intelligence (Brysbaert & Rastle, 2009). This early effort was nonetheless a useful start. There are even renewed ‘Galton-like’ approaches being pursued today by the likes of Arthur Jensen and Mike Andersen, so the basic principles continue to be applied. An important new development was the application of these ideas to the field of education when Alfred Binet devised an intelligence test with the help of his ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The historical and conceptual development of intelligence tests in Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/psychology/1411714-the-historical-and-conceptual-development-of-intelligence-tests-in-psychology-during-the-modern-period
(The Historical and Conceptual Development of Intelligence Tests in Essay)
https://studentshare.org/psychology/1411714-the-historical-and-conceptual-development-of-intelligence-tests-in-psychology-during-the-modern-period.
“The Historical and Conceptual Development of Intelligence Tests in Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/psychology/1411714-the-historical-and-conceptual-development-of-intelligence-tests-in-psychology-during-the-modern-period.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Emotional Intelligence Psychology Essay
.... A wide range of items can then used for the test with invalid questions taken after the group has taken the test. Items that are considered irrelevant in determining the construct can then be removed (Key, 2002). To illustrate, let us assume that we already have a population who has already been identified by experts to have a high emotional intelligence and let them take our test along those who are known to have poor emotional aptitude. We are going to develop a list of criteria that can determine our construct which is emotional intelligence. To determine the validity the criteria of our construct, we are going let them take the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Historical Development of Modern Nursing
...? Historical Development of Modern Nursing Question one According to Hood and Leddy (2006), a proper nursing philosophy identifies the uniqueness of human beings in terms of the bio-psychosocial aspects. It also recognizes individuals as culturally and spiritually functional as a whole in response to both external and internal signals in the social and physical environment. This consideration recognizes the fact that the mind, body and spirit are in a continuous interaction with one another. A good nursing philosophy recognizes the fact that every individual has personal rights and deserves respect in regards to ones customs, beliefs and needs. This means that they have the right to...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
The Historical and Conceptual Development of Intelligence Testing in Psychology
...? The historical and conceptual development of intelligence testing in psychology al affiliation The historical and conceptual development of intelligence testing in psychology 1.0. Introduction Intelligence testing is a primeval procedure which dates back to the ancient china (Simonton, 2003). It was until the twentieth century when it started being used majorly in the U.S (Randal & Oliver, 2005). Generally, intelligence testing involves the evaluation of someone’s psychological abilities and strengths. Additionally the tests were used to determine the leaders and heads of certain positions. According to Richard & Lisa (2000) one’s psychological ability and strength is very significant in their social and professional life... . This is...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Conceptual and Historical Issues in Psychology
.... With time it is found out that there an implication that the outcome of the experiments has on judgment because many arguments can be correct till proven right. Another example is on statistics where it is implicated in relationships. Reference Bachelard, G. (1984). The New Scientific Spirit. (G. Arthur, Ed.) Boston: Beacon Press. Benjamin, L. T. (2007). A Brief History of Modern Psychology. London: Blackwell Publications. Brennan, J. F. (1986). History and systems of psychology. London: Prentice-Hall. Brysbaert, M., & Rastle, K. (2009). Historical and Conceptual Issues in Psychology. Pearson/Prentice Hall . Callon, M., &...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Psychology Tests and Measurements
...?Psychology Tests and Measurements Lecturer: Face validity is realized by the fact that a measure tests the particular purpose it purports to measure. In the WEI items are valid since the questions administered ask the work ethic of employees. The test takes into account both cognitive and behavioral aspects. Items showing the behavioral aspect are issue to do with duration of working hours and the pace of work. The cognitive questions include sense of self worth and making excuses or complaining about hard work. In HWI the first few items of the test of assessment pass the mark of face validity. Those are the first three tests which are...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Psychology Intelligence
...intelligence. 2. Alfred Binet and Theodor Simon were the first men to develop an intelligence test. The two men devised a test that greatly considered the individual differences between people particularly children. Through their study, they developed age linked items that should be within the capacities of a child of that age. (Johnston, 1997) Such tests were likewise used in schools to determine the achievers and the low students. This is one way by which intelligence tests were misused for many believe that segregating the poor-performing students and grouping them together did not...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Tests of Intelligence
...and exceptional children and for identifying specific cognitive strengths and weaknesses (Watkins, Glutting & Youngstrom, 2005) Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (WSIC): Developed by David Wechsler, this is an intelligence test for children between the age group 6 to 16, meant to generate scores of IQ based on a comprehensive test model that includes ten core subtests and five supplemental tests. All these tests are verbal, and each of them carries equal weightage. The main testing spheres include verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. Application of WSIC in...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment
Parental Stress During Prenatal Period
...Parental Stress During Prenatal Period Parental Stress During Prenatal Period In APA Style Parental Stress During Prenatal Period 2 Stress during prenatal period greatly influences the capability of an individual to manage different stressors in adulthood. This vulnerability may be a result of abnormalities in the development of the forebrain dopaminergic and glutamatergic projection during pregnancy. According to studies, dopamine D2-like receptors increase in dorsal frontal cortex (DFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPC) hippocampal CA1 region and core region of nucleus...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
PSYCHOLOGY/ INTELLIGENCE
... Your Intelligence Intelligence comes from the Latin word which means to discern. Like most aspects of psychology, intelligence is something that can’t be measured simply. Hence comprehensive cognitive exams are done to check a person’s intelligence quotient. Some of these tests are psychometric tests and aptitude tests. These IQ tests usually cover the areas of attention, auditory, visual and tactile perceptions, spatial and constructional processing abilities along with verbal and language functions, spatial and constructional processing abilities, memory and learning, and problem solving (Sparrow and Davis, 2000). For me, intelligence is the capacity of an individual to deal effectively and to adapt well in his environment. My... ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Tests and Measurement- Influence of Historical Events
..., it was vital to determine the one who needed specialized assistance. How the historical event influenced the development of tests and measurement Binet and his colleagues developed questions to test memory, attention, and problem-solving skills. These questions helped Binet to determine the children who had problems in answering the questions. The first intelligence test which people today refer as Binet-Simon scale provided a basis of intelligence tests that people use today (Anastasi and Urbina, 1997). Historical event #2 Standardized Achievement...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic The historical and conceptual development of intelligence tests in psychology during the modern period for FREE!
Contact Us