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# Newton's Law Cooling - Lab Report Example

Summary
The objective of the study was to verify the Newton’s law of cooling, to find out the influence of air flow on the process of cooling, and to discuss the cooling process mechanism.
In experimental…

## Extract of sample "Newton's Law Cooling"

Newton’s Law of cooling An experiment was set to investigate the Newton’s law of cooling. The objective of the study was to verify the Newton’s law of cooling, to find out the influence of air flow on the process of cooling, and to discuss the cooling process mechanism.
Introduction.
In experimental observations, the object’s surface temperature changes in a rate that is proportional to the relative temperature. This is, the differences between the temperature of the environment and the temperature of an object. This is referred to as Newton’s law of cooling. According to the Newton’s law of cooling the change in rate of the object temperature is directly proportional to the ambient temperature and the own temperature difference. Ambient temperature involves that temperature of the environment. The law makes some statement that concerns the instantaneous temperature rate of change. Translating the verbal description into to the differential equation gives a differential equation whose solution is a function which tracks the total temperature record with time. In order to understand the Newton’s law of cooling, an experiment was set to investigate.
Methodology
Procedure
Newton law of cooling
The room temperature was recorded using a similar thermometer that was used in the experiment. The thermometer was placed the boiling water up to when the reading of the thermometer was about one hundred degrees Celsius. The thermometer was quickly attached to the stand and started counting whenever the temperature reached eighty degrees Celsius. The temperature was read and recorded for the thermometer each and every thirty seconds for duration of five to six minutes. The procedure was repeated to obtain good data set and the average temperature reading recorded on the data sheet.
Heat Loss in breezy Condition
The fan was set to about six to nine inches from the thermometer so that the thermometer bulb is inside the stream of air after the activation of the fan. The thermometer position was observed on the stand for the thermometer to be set on the stand at about the same position as in the previous experiments. The procedure was repeated. The fan was started and set to be low, the procedure was repeated with the fan on. The position of the fan was not changed between the experiments and the thermometer placed on the similar location as per the fans in the experiment. The prior procedure was repeated with the fan on a higher setting. The obtained data was recorded in table 1 and 2 under the result section of this report.
Results
The collected data was recorded in table 1.
Table 1: Data for still air
Time, t(Minutes)
T (oC) First run
T (oC) Second Run
T (oC) Third run
Average (ToC)
Change in T/change in t
T-Tr
0
61
65
96
67.3
0
64.3
30
63
72
80
71.67
2.39
46.67
60
55
62
69
62
1.033
39
90
50
55
59
54.67
0.607
31.67
120
45
49
53
49
0.408
26
150
41
44
47
44
0.293
21
180
39
40
43
40.67
0.2259
17.67
210
36
38
40
38
0.181
15
240
35
35
37
35.67
0.15
12.67
270
33
34
35
34
0.126
11
300
32
32
33
32.33
0.1078
9.33
330
31
31
32
31.33
0.095
6.33
360
30
30
31
30.33
0.084
7.33
Table 2: data for low speed fan.
Time, t(Minutes)
T (oC) First run
T (oC) Second Run
T (oC) Third run
Average (ToC)
Change in T/change in t
T-Tr
0
94
95
92
93.6
0
70.6
30
63
57
57
59.3
1.97
36
60
43
42
41
42
0.7
19
90
34
33
33
33.3
0.37
10.3
120
30
29
29
29.3
0.33
16.3
150
26
27
27
27
0.182
4.3
180
27
26
26
26.3
0.146
3.3
210
26
26
25
27.3
0.12
3.3
240
26
25
25
26.3
0.105
2.3
270
26
25
25
25.6
0.094
2.3
300
26
25
25
25.3
0.084
2.3
330
26
25
25
25.3
0.077
2.3
360
26
25
25
25.3
0.070
2.3
Table 3:Data for high speed fan
Time, t(Minutes)
T (oC) First run
T (oC) Second Run
T (oC) Third run
Average (ToC)
dT/dt( t)
T-Tr
0
100
100
100
100
0
77
30
86
72
80
80
2.67
57
60
63
56
65
61.33
1.022
36.33
90
54
56
55
51.67
0.57
26.67
120
47
46
48
45
0.375
22
150
42
35
43
40
0.267
17
180
36
32
38
36
0.2
13
210
35
30
35
33.33
0.159
10.33
24300
33
29
32
31.33
0.130
6.33
29270
31
26
30
29.67
0.109
6.67
300
30
27
29
26.66
0.95
5.66
330
29.5
27
28
26.16
0.085
5.16
360
29
26
27
27.33
0.076
4.33
Graph 1: A graph of Temperature versus Time
Discussion
According to the obtained results T(t) is the temperature at time t in minutes and T(0)a involves the ambient temperature. The rate of temperature was found to be proportional to the difference of the environmental temperature and the recorded temperature. The study found a positive value of K implying that that dT/dt= -K (T-Tr). This equation is referred to as the Newton Law of cooling (Sasi 50).
Conclusion
All the objectives of this study were realized. The experimental values were found to be different from the theoretical value due to experimental errors. Some of the experimental errors were due to parallax, air resistance, faulty apparatus, wrong calculation, and human error. These errors can be corrected by performing the experiment in a vacuum, checking the equipment to ascertain their accuracy, and performing the experiment three times and obtaining the average.
Work Cited
Sasi, Kumar. Practical Physics. New York: Mcgraw-Hill. 2009. Print. Read More
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