The Development of Computers and where they are going (from Abacus to the Netbook): A User Manual By Name Date Table of Contents Introduction The computer is certainly a most wonderful technological invention that has the power to change the future. Since the emergence of computers its influence on people’ lives has been seen in different perspectives…
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At the present, computers are changing the view of the world and offering a lot of facilities and utilities for the businesses as well as individuals. For instance, they have offered extensive business support and facilities for the better business and operational management (California State University, 2010), (Norton, 2001) and (Shelly et al., 2005). This research is aimed at analyzing different aspects of the evolution of computers and their impacts on our lives. This research is presented in the form of a manual, which presents an overview of the development of computer technology and systems. This manual will discuss some of the important areas of this technology and their possible impacts on our lives. This manual will also outline the impacts of the computer technology on business areas. Evolution of Computer Technology The latest computers and associated devices emerged due to the progresses in technologies as well as users’ requirements to enumerate. In the past, Papyrus assisted people to recall language as well as numbers. Afterward the abacus appeared as one of the initial calculating machines. However, these historical automatic computing systems and machines lacked the effective design processes and working that are necessary to make a machine useful. For example, a number of machines included components those are made of iron or wood previous to metal operation and manufacturing (Hitmill, 2010) and (Shelly et al., 2005). Early Calculating Machines The abacus is one of the initial calculating machines that came out about 5,000 years ago in Asia Minor as well as is still utilized by many organizations. The users use this system or device to formulate calculations by means of a system of sliding beads placed on a frame. Additionally, this device was used by historical merchants to record and maintain business dealings. In addition, with the increased usage of paper and pencil, mainly in Europe, the use of abacus decreased. However, it took approximately 12 centuries for the new and major developments in technology and computing devices to appear. Moreover, in 1642, a numerical wheel was invented by Blaise Pascal to help his father perform his jobs. This system was made up of a brass rectangular box, as well acknowledged as a Pascaline, included eight changeable dials to calculate the sum up to eight figures long. In the same way, the new device invented by Pascal utilized a base of ten to achieve the similar results (LaMorte & Lilly, 2011) and (ThinkQuest, 2011). Figure 1 Earlier computers, example of Abacus, Image source: http://www.nos.org/htm/funda1.htm Modern Computer Technology Progress Charles Babbage was motivated by punched hole cards and finally in 1830 he built the design of a mechanical computer. Additionally, he spent his 40 years on this plan however; unluckily he could not find the technology to offer the accuracy parts necessary to construct this computer (LaMorte & Lilly, 2011) and (ThinkQuest, 2011). Invention of Modern Computers Scientists discovered superior future in computer electronics. The progress in computing continued with the development of initial special purpose analog technology based computer in 1939, by John Atanasoff. However, this system was enhanced in 1944 by means of switching circuits identified as electromechanical relays. In the same way, in 1946, the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
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