Communicating - Essay Example

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Running head: communicating Describe the perceptual process model of communication and the process, personal, physical, and semantic barriers to effective communication. Perceptual process model of communication proposes that communication is the resultant of interaction between various elements such as the sender, encoding process, the message, the medium of communication, the receiver, decoding process, creation of meaning, feedback from the receiver, and noise…
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Running head: communicating Describe the perceptual process model of communication and the process, personal, physical, and semantic barriers to effective communication. Perceptual process model of communication proposes that communication is the resultant of interaction between various elements such as the sender, encoding process, the message, the medium of communication, the receiver, decoding process, creation of meaning, feedback from the receiver, and noise. These elements have potential barriers that interfere in the process of communication resulting in noise. Barriers include communication skills, differences in information processing and interpretation, differences in trust, stereotypes and biases, ego, ineffective listening, lack of knowledge of nonverbal communication. Other barriers are physical such as media of communication, distance, time, noise etc. Semantic barriers include errors in the process of encoding and/or decoding the messages created mainly due to process, personal and physical barriers. Contrast the communication styles of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and non-assertiveness and discuss the primary sources of nonverbal communication. Assertive style in communication is expressive and self-enhancing and does not violate self or others’ basic human rights such as self respect and dignity. Aggressive style is quite opposite to this, wherein the individual tries to be over expressive and self-centered, and takes advantage of others. A nonassertive style is less confident, hesitant and defensive behavior; this style gives the other person to take unfair advantage of the communicator. Nonverbal communication refers to the messages sent out from actions, body language, tone, and gestures other than words or speech. Usually nonverbal cues can be derived from aspects such as dressing sense and color, gait, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, and ambience also. Review the Five Dominate Listening Styles and 10 Keys to Effective Listening. The five dominant listening styles include appreciative, comprehensive, discerning, evaluative and empathetic styles. Appreciative listeners look for pleasure in whatever they listen like humor, amusement, appreciation etc. Comprehensive listeners look for specific thoughts and actions and look for more information; they try to relate the context with their own experiences and look for logic in the matter. Discerning listeners look for information that gives the exact message in the conversation. Evaluative listeners are analytical and ask lots of questions; sometimes they tend to divert the topic. Empathetic listeners focus on speaker’s emotions, body language, and presentation. They can easily feel what the speaker feels about the subject in conversation. The 10 keys to effective listening include capitalizing on thought or speed; listening for ideas; finding an area of interest; judging content and not delivery; avoiding getting aggressive or emotional about the subject; focus on listening; resisting distraction; hearing both favorable and unfavorable information; challenging oneself with complex information; using handouts, overheads or other visual aids that will reinforce listening and provides opportunity to take notes and remember. Explain the information technology of Internet/Intranet/extranet, email, handheld devices, blogs, videoconferencing, group support systems, and the related use of teleworking. The Internet is a global network that can connect computers over the world. An intranet is a network that is privately owned by an organization and cannot be accessed/used by outsiders. An extranet is slight extension of the intranet whereby it connects the organization with its customers, suppliers, and strategic partners. These networks are mainly used to share, create and manage information from different places. Personal digital assistants are handheld devices that can be used to work from any location. They provide the same benefit as computers and other communication devices. An online journal that can be used by anyone to write on specific topic is referred to as a blog; however access to the blog can be limited. Videoconferencing is the process that enables people located at different places to see, hear and talk to each other with the use of computers and technology. Group support systems are the network of software and hardware systems that enable better working with the use of technology. Teleworking is the process of working from different locations using telecommunication networks. References Kinicki, A and Kreitner, R. (2009). Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills and best practices. New York: TataMcGraw Hill Inc. Read More
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