The use of drugs and other pharmaceuticals has been a part of human history since ancient times. Back in the times of earlier civilizations, drugs were often used in the form of herbs, salves, and crushed powders…
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Different types of drugs have different mechanisms of action. Depending on the type of drug and the form in which it is administered can cause a wide range of variation of symptoms. Almost all drugs, however, interact with the dopaminergic reward system. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which is often a pleasure producing chemical. Drugs can either act as agonists or antagonists on receptors, which impact the secretion of this rewarding chemical. As a result, drug users use this in order to achieve the euphoria. Eventually, it takes more and more of the drug in order to achieve the same level of euphoria. This is the beginning of addiction. For drug users who have been using for years, this addiction becomes life essential to the point that it has altered their physiology and if they were to stop using, it would result in death. Thus this addiction moves from becoming a criminal intention to a medical condition. For example, methamphetamines are an extremely powerful drug, which can lead to the chemical addiction as mentioned above. The withdrawal symptoms can have severe physiological symptoms as well as lead to death due to the lack of medication. This lead to the production of a medicine known as methadone, which is a pharmaceutical which can keep the side effects from methamphetamine occurring, but itself is addicting. In addition, the war on drugs has been occurring for many years, but illegal drugs still are being used and will still make their way onto the streets. As long as there are buyers and sellers, the drug trades and cartels will continue to exist as they find better and more covert ways of initiating their drug transactions.
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However, as the problem has ballooned in Western society, and arguably the world over, so have the substances that are the vehicle towards addiction. Because of the breadth of the topic, this essay will focus on the systemic effects that substance abuse is having on the economy and society of the United States.
Back in difficult times when I could not seem to have proper control of myself because of drugs, there had been a couple of moments I felt people would merely impose rules as if I was solely responsible for the occurring psychological and emotional disaster so my only option was to follow their lead.
An estimated 14 million people in the US abuse alcohol, drugs and other illicit substances (Austin, 2005).
The official definition of substance abuse proposed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) identifies several distinct symptoms/patterns associated with this condition.
These investigations can provide preliminary evidence on the probable importance of genetic factors and serve as the foundation for subsequent research. People over the age of 18 who have at least one biological parent with severe and repetitive life problems with alcohol are referred to as adult children of alcoholics.
(Volkow, 2004) The effect of this abuse is apparent in many areas of life, and includes health and social concerns, the emotional and mental anguish to the patient and the persons close to them, and the effects it can produce on a broader scale on the different sectors of life.
With this, one might conclude that what drives a certain person determines his course of action.In the same way, if we are to further analyze drug addiction in relation to criminality and vice versa, there are no human beings who can be categorized as criminal or drug addict but there are things that triggered a certain person form him to be classified as such.
138). In 1994 alone drug trafficking and conviction accounted for 31.4% of felony convictions nationwide (12.5% for possession and 19% for trafficking). Further, between 1980 and 1989 arrest for drug offenses rose 134% (Armstrong 2003, p. 140). Frustrated with the inability to control the seemingly unstoppable drug trade and increased, repeated drug abuse, the Chief Justice of the 11th Judicial Circuit in mid 1989 set in motion a series of events that would revolutionize the methodology used by the courts to deal with the drug problem within the United States.
buse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders.
Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that imply and who is affected
as somatic manifestation where the person that is dependent on a drug will shake hands, feel headache, or any other corporeal symptoms when they have not taken a dose. Psychological dependence is where an individual with an addiction has an intense urge to take the drugs after
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