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The condition often leads to the development of glucose intolerance among women with GDM, and at least 50% of those developing the intolerance become diabetic in a period of 5-10 years (Perry et al., 2011).
GDM risk factors include obesity, maternal age (higher risk at >30), family history of diabetes and a medical history of birth anomalies, miscarriage or still births. Other risk factors include glucosuria, hypertension and monilial vaginitis (Perry et al., 2011).
The mechanism underlying the condition is a result of multiple factors including changes in nutrient demands by the fetus. These changes that begin in the late second trimester induce maternal sustenance of high blood glucose. Pregnancy placental hormones are responsible for the antagonism of insulin and cortisol, which results in the insulin resistance and less entry of glucose into cells. Normal body functioning elicits higher insulin production to compensate the resistance, and when this fails GDM occurs (Perry et al., 2011).
GDM often leads to further health complications including hypertension, episiotomy and perineal lacerations. The high levels of insulin stimulate faster growth, which often leads to macrosomia that necessitates caesarian births (Perry et al., 2011). The induced high insulin production among the babies born after GDM often leads to hypoglycemia.
Ideally, all women should be screened for GDM, and this can be done either through laboratory tests, clinical risk factors or medical and family history. It is essential for women with a family history of diabetes as well as obese and overweight women to undergo laboratory test. The same is recommendable for women aged above 25 and with a history of obstetric conditions associated with GDM. The laboratory tests include fasting glucose test, random glucose test and two-hour postprandial test (Perry et al., 2011).
Antepartum Interventions: GDM treatment interventions begin immediately through insulin
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It is a very common problem and about 4 % of all pregnant women have GD. In other words in every 100 pregnancy in US, 3 to 8 women get GD. It is important to keep a check on the blood glucose level because an increased glucose level can result in deformities in the baby.
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Another set of information which
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