Middle range theories can be applied in the field of nursing to take care of patients, families and communities at large. This paper will use a scenario common in the maternity department, in hospitals. …
Download file to see previous pages...
Kristen Swanson is the Dean of the school of nursing and a distinguished professor at the University of North Carolina at the Chapel Hill. Swanson got famous for her theory of caring. She developed the theory with intent of helping pregnant women who lose their pregnancy. The theory suggested that, in a situation where a nurse demonstrates that they care about a patient, the effect is as necessary to the patient as it could be had the nurse provided clinical activities to the patient (Grove et al, 2013). The clinical activities include preventing infections and administering medications.
In the theory, Swanson referred to four phenomena that entail the field of nursing. These according to the theory are nursing, patient, health and an environment. The theory defined nursing as the informed caring of the well being of other people. It further defined patients as individuals who are in the process of becoming. The theory entailed five processes that should be followed when providing care to the patient. The five processes included knowing, being with, doing for, enabling and maintaining belief. The theory highlighted that each woman gets valued and treated as an individual while each midwife gets wholly committed to woman-centered care. Swanson described ‘knowing’ as the process of trying to understand a situation as it is in another person’s life. According to the process of knowing, one should not try to assume or conclude how another person feels without the evidence (Gottlieb, 2013). It should be evidence-based. The process involves getting information from the patient through personal experiences narrated by the patient as well as thorough testing done on the patient.
The process of ‘being with’ according to the theory involves being there for or with the woman. The nurse should be in a position to be there for the woman. They should be able to provide the physical, psychological and emotional support to the woman. In order to achieve this, there should be effective communication between the woman and the nurse. The nurse should listen to the woman’s needs. Being with, according to the theory does not only entail being by the woman’s side physically. It also includes protecting and valuing her ideas. This can be achieved through accounting for every action taken in midwifery with evidence (Gottlieb, 2013). The third process according to the theory entails ‘doing for’. Doing for involves doing what the woman could have done to herself if she was in a position to do so. It involves identifying those activities that the woman cannot currently do for herself because of the situation that she is currently (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). This process can be viewed as the art of midwifery. It, therefore, comprises of all those activities undertaken by the nurse or midwife with an intention of making sure the woman has a successful delivery. The fourth process is enabling. This process can be described as the acts of trying to facilitate other people achieve what they wish in their life. It entails giving people power to do what they wish. In midwifery, the process involves making it
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Several caring theories have been developed to enhance and preserve caring; some of which are Watson's theory, Leininger's Theory, Roach's theory and Boykin's theory. Watson theory, proposed by Jean Watson, is basically philosophy of caring and science and examines relatedness of various aspects of nursing like human science, human experiences, human caring, phenomena and human processes.
She calls this caring attitude as composed of “carative” factors (from the word care) and is encapsulated in her seven major assumptions as contained in her theory of nursing. Furthermore, she elaborated on this theory in her ten “carative” factors that should serve as a guide in today's complex world of nursing.
From the University of Colorado, she earned her undergraduate degree in nursing and psychology, her master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing, and continued to earn her Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling. (Cara, 2003) Though she has always taken personal interest in the convalescence procedure of the patients under her supervision, but also she obtained command over various departments of the nursing profession by earning her Doctorate in the discipline.
In the contemporary age, a vast majority of the health care systems are going through a phase of administrative restructuring all over the world. This has potentially increased the risk of dehumanization of the care provided to the patients. Consideration of caring as the central objective of nursing requires the nurses to make an objective effort to secure patient care in their educational practices.
Watson’s Theory of Caring.
The last few decades witnessed an increasing emphasis on the role of nurses in the healthcare delivery system throughout the world. This increased responsibility brought increased workload and increased stress in the workplace.
Watson’s Caring Theory in Postpartum Disorder
Nursing theories explain phenomena relating to clinical practice particularly in providing care. It may define or describe concepts, health-related events and propose something about them either by explaining functions, relationships, associations and performance, among other related concepts (Rich, 2011, p.606).
Therefore this paper chooses “Swanson’s Middle Range Caring Theory” to address a miscarriage scenario. The situation involves a patient experiencing regular but uncomfortable contractions and progressively becoming stronger after miscarriage (Adolfsson et al., 2004).
Watson’s theory of human caring
Watson’s theory of human caring entails assisting the patient with human needs, establishing hope and interpersonal relations. The theory cultivates sensitivity for others and promotes a supportive environment that aids in the physical, social and spiritual development of the patient.
Arts and humanities are the major constituents of caring science. Caring science can also be divided into a world of unity where people are united by the spirit of offering assistance to each other and the fact of being in relation or the relations ontology.