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Literature review - Research Paper Example

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LITERATURE REVIEW: SLEEP APNEA TREATMENT TRIALS Abstract Sleep apnea is a sleeping disorder characterized by the cessation of airflow in the airways (apnea) and a reduction of oxygen intake by 50% and above (hypopnea) for 10 seconds or more per hour during sleep…
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Download file to see previous pages Based on various reports, it is suggested that in any kind of treatment for sleep apnea, a strict adherence to treatment methods is the key for prolonged AHI reduction among patients. Literature Review: Sleep Apnea Treatment Trials Sleep apnea is defined as the cessation of airflow through the nose or mouth for at least 10 seconds every sleeping hour, which decreases at least 3% oxyhemoglobin in the blood and a reduction of 50% in oxygen intake among patients (Noseda, et al., 2004). The total of apnea (due to obstruction) and hypopnea (airflow reduction) events during sleep is measured as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and the number is positively correlated to the severity of sleep apnea. Possible causes are multifactorial, ranging from abnormal cranial structures, relaxed airway muscles or problems with respiratory control during sleep (Barnes, et al., 2009). Effects can range from excessive daytime sleepiness, dysfunction in the patient’s metabolism and neurocognition, cardiovascular disorders, and mood swings with a decreased quality of life (Ackel-D’Elia, et al., 2012; Kline, et al., 2012; Quan, et al., 2007). The most widely accepted methods to alleviate the symptoms of apnea are either surgery or the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask, to increase the oxygen intake during sleep (Quan, et al., 2007; Sengul, et al., 2011). However, several researches have emerged that have significant or comparable results by using less-invasive procedures such as increasing physical activity levels or combining it with other methods, and while the issue of the low number of participants in some studies can be a hindrance to the acceptability of exercise as a way to reduce apnea effects, the number of trials that affirm positive effects must be looked upon to consider it as an effective and non-invasive alternative treatment for sleep apnea. Physical Activity Trials The increasing numbers of overweight and obesity triggered an increase in the number of patients suffering from sleep apnea, and one of the main reasons is that there is less physical activity that strengthens the muscles of the air passages and lungs, making the respiratory muscles weak and relaxed, preventing sufficient breathing of air (Barnes, et al., 2009; Giebelhaus, et al., 2000). In a study that compared a group of sleep apnea sufferers against a control-group, a simple six-minute walk test was used to assess breathing patterns, heart rate, blood pressure, and dyspnea (Alameri, Al-Kabab, & BaHammam, 2010). The study found out that while the physical activity did not cause drastic effects to the sleep apnea group, their hemodynamic responses were abnormal compared to the control group, concluding that a simple test can assess significant effects of mild physical activity otherwise unnoticeable by the patients. The study had limitations such as selection of low-risk participants for the control group, not investigating other contributing factors in exercise limitation, and conducting the study on a single ethnic group. However, further studies that are comprised by various ethnic groups may be studied and physical activity programs may be used in combination with their methods to establish the possibility of using the procedure for sleep apnea prognosis. The effects of exercise in sleep apnea on any kind of body-mass index (BMI), ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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