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Obstructive sleep apnea - Essay Example

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Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Obstructive Sleep Apnea 1.0 Background This essay seeks to discuss the disease, Obstructive sleep apnea. It covers the following; pathophysiology, epidemiology, historical context, the management and treatment of the disease, current developments of the disease and a conclusion…
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Obstructive sleep apnea

Download file to see previous pages... More so, the collapse of upper airway during sleep causes obstructive sleep apnea which results from negative oropharyngeal pressure and narrowing of the oropharyngeal lumen. The disease presents with the following symptoms: somnolence, fatigue, headaches, depression, and loud snoring during sleep (Davidson’s 2007, p. 666). 1.1 Historical context of sleep apnea Obstructive sleep apnea is chronic and associated with cardio metabolic sequelae; the disease has existed for the last three decades, and the current society has increased awareness of the disease. The disease contributes to atherosclerosis (Lorenzi 2007, p. 615), and a clinical manifestation of cardio metabolic risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and obesity (Givelber 2005, p. 219). In 1980s researches got conducted in different populations, they defined the disease and informed on the risk factors. Recently, a study called Sleep Heart Health got carried out to compare the effects of obesity on the disease (Tasali 2008, p. 216). The study concludes that the impact of obesity on the evolution of sleep apnea is not major because patients are obese at presentation. Further, research on sleep apnea and the complications on cardio metabolic complications in the last 8 years discovered that the disease has a long term standing illness and imposes economic burden to the society (Giles 2006, p. 2412). 1.2 Epidemiology/ prevalence. Obstructive sleep apnea is a breathing disorder that has existed since 1980s and is now available in many different countries (Takegami, 2008, p. 420). Researchers approximate that 1 per cent in every 5 of American adult develops mild obstruction sleep apnea. Estimations show that, in mid 1990s, 3 per cent to 4 per cent of women, and 6 per cent to 7 per cent of men developed obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, obstructive is more common in men than in women by approximately 2 to 3 times more than that of women (Punjabi 2008, p. 137). The prevalence of sleep apnea is the same in Caucasians and Asians, so the disease has spread in the whole world-developed and developing countries. The disease prevalence is higher among obese subgroup, elderly, and those with different ethnic groups-African –American ethnicity is a risk factor. Increased Obesity indices are the cause of increased prevalence among Americans, Indians and Hispanic adults (Buchanan 2005, p. 431). 1.3 Aetiology/ whole body context Obstructive sleep apnea results due to persistent obstruction of the pharynx at the level of the soft plate leading to cessation of respiratory for 10 seconds occuring for 5 to 30 times (Davidson’s 2007, p. 666). The disease results when the muscles responsible for dilating the tongue reduce tone. These muscles are palatoglossus and genioglossus. The reduction of muscle tone occurs due to; effects of some drugs, alcohol, or neurological problems (Rodriguez 2010, p 838). During sleep, muscle tone reduces leading to failure in dilating the upper airway open, which results to the falling of the pharyngeal patency (Magini 2010, p. 549). It is the persisted of this situation that leads to breathing difficulties during sleep. More so, obstruction of airway occurs due to, deviated nasal septum, nasal congestion, enlarged tonsils, hypertrophy of adenoids and facial trauma. They lead to impaired airway passage (David 2010, p. 720). Similarly, Obstruction sleep a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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