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In medicine, research mainly involves interactions with living things such as human subjects and therefore there is great need to have knowledge of ethical issues in medical research. This ensures that study subjects are treated well and that no harm begets them in the course of a study.
When dealing with human subjects, researchers should make sure that risk levels are minimal to prevent any harm. Human subjects, should be handled like normal human beings and not just like mere study subjects. In a bid to reduce risk levels, federal laws have clauses protecting human subjects for the federal funded projects. The clauses insist that risk levels should be equivalent to results expected (Brown, Anderson, Chervin, Kushida, Lewin, Malow, Redline, and Goldman, 2011, p.1). This implies that study subjects should not be exposed to extremely high risks for research projects that only have little significance. In a bid to prevent harm to human subjects, use of placebos is allowed under special conditions. Use of placebos should not be used for all studies but only to the studies that have no proven alternative study approach.
However, in some cases the risk levels may pose a challenge to determine and are therefore not known. This implies that there is no certainty of the risks involved for that particular study. In such a scenario use of placebos may be recommended in order to reduce harm chances. However, this does not mean that placebos are always the chosen option in all such cases. Other methods such as use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in disease processes associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) may be preferred depending on the nature of the study. Nevertheless, this methods are followed by strict instructions that involve keeping human subjects from participating in all activities that pose risks. For example, under CPAP, human subjects at high risks of car crashes due to sleepiness may be advised not to drive when feeling even
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