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Exercise and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Essay Example

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Exercise and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Identifying a Problem, Developing a Question, and Selecting Sources of Literature Identifying a Problem Exercise has been described as an important element in the well-being of an individual. In fact, exercise has been hailed by many an expert as potential deterrent and solution to many of life’s problems…
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Exercise and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Identifying a Problem, Developing a Question, and Selecting Sources of Literature Identifying a Problem Exercise has been described as an important element in the well-being of an individual. In fact, exercise has been hailed by many an expert as potential deterrent and solution to many of life’s problems. For example, people are encouraged to perform exercises to reduce stress and as a measure against obesity. Exercise according to several quarters also helps improve the body’s general functionality thereby helping in reducing the chances of attack by various ailments. Resistance training and stretching exercises are for example part of an athlete’s routine activities if they really have to capture their desires. Indeed many a study have confirmed that when exercise is properly prescribed and supervised, some of its favorable impact include heightened endurance, muscle strength, improved metabolism and cardiovascular function and reduced risk of suffering from coronary disease as noted by Lee, Rexrode, Cook, Manson, and Buring (2001). While the benefits of exercise on personal health is beyond dispute, it is also worth noting that too much of it, like every substance, can be dangerous. While much study has been dedicated to the benefits of exercise, very little has been conducted on its demerits. Presumably, exercise may end up being detrimental if it is poorly done or done the wrong way, if it is done at the wrong time or if it is done in excess. When done wrongly, exercise can cause physical injury. Countless in number are the laymen, sports people and athletes that have suffered injury as a result of wrong posture or due to miscalculated steps in the course of exercise. As previously stated, when some exercises are done at the wrong time, such as during pregnancy, physical injury may occur. In the same manner, certain exercises are not recommended for patients with heart or coronary diseases. The extent to which exercise is done presumably affects the outcome of a patient as suggested by Manson, Greenland, LaCroix, Stefanick, Mouton, Oberman, Perri, Sheps, Pettinger, and Siscovick (2002). When exercise is conducted without due consideration to certain constraints, a patient may end up suffering injury. The major issue in this regard is how much exercise should be prescribed for the individual, particularly in case where the individual is suffering from coronary heart disease or where he/she is at a risk of developing the disease. There are some instances where the exercise can lead to undesirable effects among patients suffering from or at risk of developing heart disease. In such a case, if the nurse or the caregiver does not know the amount of exercise to be given to the individual, there are possible risks that the individual will receive low quality healthcare services. Heart failure and eventually death are the possible risks for the patient. Cardiology in nursing is very important since the patients need proper treatment and care. It is crucial for the nurse to know how to deal with the issue of coronary heart disease in regard to exercise. Thus, measures should be taken to ensure that the individual receives optimal exercise depending on the severity of the problem, age, and gender. Developing a Question People have used exercise in attempt to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. However how effective is exercise in reducing the risk of getting coronary heart disease? Selecting Sources of Literature Myers, J. (2003). Exercise and cardiovascular health. Circulation, 107, e2-e5. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000048890.59383.8D The article indicates that individuals who are fit or active tend to develop less coronary heart disease. If the condition develops, it happens at a later age and it is not very severe. It is estimated that close to 250,000 individuals die each year in the United States because of lack of exercise. There are many benefits of doing exercise such as reducing bad cholesterol, and reducing weight. Despite its benefits, one question remains unanswered, how much exercise is enough? It is indicated that each American should take part in 30 minutes or more of considerable intensity activity, preferably in all days of the week. Researchers estimate that if each these recommendations are met, the likelihood of cardiovascular conditions will be reduced by around 40-60 percent. The article supports the proposed change. Lauer, M. S. (2012). And what about exercise? Fitness and risk of death in “low risk” adults. Journal of the American Heart Association, 1, 1-3. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.003228 There is an ongoing controversy that people could be harmed by exercise. The author is quick to note that the statements were based on weak evidence. Some of the researches have used methods that are weak and cannot be relied upon. For instance, observational studies are subject to biases of observational epidemiology, and thus their results are not reliable. In another study, the issue of the amount of exercise to be done in cases of cardiovascular events is raised. The study found that even those who exercised below the recommended time, showed great improvements in physical fitness. The article supports the proposed change. Galan, A. I., Palacios, E., Ruiz, F., Diez, A., Arji, M., Almar, M., Moreno, C., Calvo, J. I., Munoz, M. E., Delgado, M. A., & Jimenez, R. (2006). Exercise, oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly: Protective role of antioxidant functional foods. Bio Factors, 27, 167-183. The article indicates that exercise is an important strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases; however, in elderly individuals, it can promote oxidative stress. Oxidative injury can result from the oxidative stress. In all the respondents, oxidative stress was significant. Vigorous can lead to oxidative injury and antioxidant depletion. Thus, balance between the harmful and beneficial effects of exercise in the elderly is important. The article supports the proposed change. Li, J., & Siergrist, J. (2012). Physical activity and risk of cardiovascular disease – A meta-analysis of perspective cohort studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 391-407. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9020391 The authors did a thorough analysis of the link between physical activity (occupational physical activity and leisure time physical activity) and incident cardiovascular disease and stroke. It was observed that both occupational and leisure time physical activity had beneficial impact on the cardiovascular health of the individual. The exercise is particularly important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in both developed and developing nations. The article supports the proposed change. Amin-Shokravi, F., & Rajabi, R., & Ziaee, N. (2011). Exercise effects on risk of cardiovascular disease among Iranian women. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(1), 37-43. Lack of physical activity is much predominant in women than in men, it varies by ethnic group, and it becomes more predominant as the individual ages. Physical activity is important in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the randomized controlled study, it was found out that physical activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. The article supports the proposed change. Manson, J. E., Greenland, P., LaCroix, A. Z., Stefanick, M. L., Mouton, C. P., Oberman, A., Perri, M. G., Sheps, D. S., Pettinger, M. B., & Siscovick, D. S. (2002). Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(10), 716-725. It remains a controversy whether walking or vigorous exercise is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that more than seventy-five percent of individual have less than the suggested level of activity. The article concludes that both vigorous exercise and walking reduce the risk of cardiovascular events regardless of the individual’s race, ethnic group, body-mass index, and age. Thus, the article supports the proposed changes. Swain, D. P. (2006). Moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise: What should we prescribe? ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 10(5), 7-11. Vigorous exercise is crucial in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks; however, it can lead to overuse injuries and musculoskeletal complications. From the study, it is evident that individual who exercise have lower risks of cardiovascular diseases. It is important to prescribe suitable intensity ranges for aerobic training. The article supports the proposed changes. Ha, T., Lee, I., Paffenbarger, R. S., Sesso, H. D. (1999). Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged and older women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(4), 408-416. The relationship between cardiovascular disease and physical among women is not very clear. This is because inconsistent results have been yielded from studies that involved women. In the United States, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. Walking for small distance had no overall link of physical activity with cardiovascular risk in women. Walking for long distances reduced the risk. Thus, the article supports the proposed change. Manson, J. E., Hu, F. B., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Speizer, F. E., & Hennekens, C. H. (1999). A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 341(9), 650-658. The function of walking in comparison to vigorous exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease is still controversial. Data for women in this area is very scarce. According to this study, 60 percent of the Americans do not participate in regular exercise or physical activity. Both walking and vigorous exercise are linked with reduction in cardiovascular activities. The article supports the proposed change. Hambrecht, R., Wolf, A., Gielen, S., Linke, A., Hofer, J., Erbs, S., Schoene, N., & Schuler, G. (2000). Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 454-460. Studies that attempt to prove that exercise reduces the effects of coronary artery disease have yielded conflicting results. The article does not offer any statistical information to demonstrate the intensity of the issue. Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. The article supports the proposed change. Tanasescu, M., Leitzmann, M. F., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., & Hu, F. B. (2002). Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(16), 1994-2000. Studies have indicated that there is an inverse relationship between physical activity and the risk of coronary heart disease. However, data on intensity and type is still sparse. Inactive people have almost twice the risk cardiovascular disease as those doing high-intensity exercise. The article supports the proposed change. Lee, I., Paffenbarger, R. S., & Sesso, H. D. (2000). Physical activity and coronary heart disease risk in men: Does the duration of exercise episodes predict risk? Circulation, 102, 981-986. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.102.9.981 Physical activity is linked with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear if the duration of physical activity episodes is important. It is estimated that more than 60 percent of the Americans are physically inactive and 25 percent are not active at all. The article supports the proposed change. Lee, I., Paffenbarger, R. S. & Sesso, H. D. (2000). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: The Harvard Alumni health study. Circulation, 102, 975-980. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.102.9.975 The amount and intensity of exercise (physical activity) needed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is not clear. Research indicates that more than 60 percent of Americans are not physically active. The article supports the proposed change. Kraus, W. E., Houmard, J. A., Duscha, B. D., Knetzger, K. J., Wharton, M. B., McCartney, J. S., Bales, C. W., Henes, S., Samsa, G. P., Otvos, J. D., Kulkarni, K. R., & Slentz, C. A. (2002). The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(19), 1483-1492. Increased exercise is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease. However, the intensity of exercise needed for optimal benefit is still unknown. The article does not offer any statistical information to demonstrate the intensity of the issue. Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. The article supports the proposed change. Lee, I., Rexrode, K. M., Cook, N. R., Manson, J. E., & Buring, J. E. (2001). Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: Is “no pain, no gain” passe? The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(11), 1447-1454. Physically active women tend to have lower risks of getting coronary heart disease than inactive women. However, it is not clear if the links differ in women or by the intensity of the activity. The article does not offer any statistical information to demonstrate the intensity of the issue. Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. The article supports the proposed change. Read More
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