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Epidemiology - Research Paper Example

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Epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, spread and the quantification of the mechanism that underlies the disease to the healthy population. The epidemiological studies help the practitioners to find out the root cause of the disease and develop the treatment methods accordingly…
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Download file to see previous pages (Friis and Sellers, 2009). Epidemiological activity is used since many decades. The statistical tools are the most powerful device used for identifying the risk factors and the relationship between various factors such as environmental factors, drugs, genetics, hormones, occupation, nutrition and viruses, bacteria. It was the epidemiological studies that revealed the relationship between Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cervical cancer. (Friis and Sellers, 2009). The US centre for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] estimates that most of the new cases of HPV are teens and young adults. They have estimated that 6 million new cases are recorded every year in US. In 2007, the CDC has announced that one among the four teenage girls ages 13 to 19 are having HPV. Among the teens, 40 percent of the children who had sex were found to have Human papilloma virus. (Lyon and Antoniades, 2009). Similarly CDC has also found that 20 Americans are infected with the HPV and many of them are not aware of it. Uses of Epidemiology 1. To study the history of the disease and the changes in the disease states. It also helps to study the history of the healthy populations in the locality. 2. To measure the true dimension of the disease and the healthy individuals. The prevalence of the disease based on the risk factors, the distribution of disability and mortality can be understood using epidemiological studies. 3. ...
(Friis and Sellers, 2009). 6. To identify the root of the chronic diseases and provide the complete history of the diseases to help the practitioners and people eradicate the disease from the epidemic regions. 7. To confirm the risk factors and causes of the disease using the knowledge obtained through studies for the risky and multiple causative disease. (Friis and Sellers, 2009). Human Papilloma virus: Papilloma viruses are DNA viruses that infect epithelia causing a variety of lesions, warts and carcinoma. Human Papilloma viruses (HPV) are ubiquitous in nature causing cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV infections are most common in the young and sexually active people within the age limit of 20 – 24. Human papilloma viruses form two groups; Genital and cutaneous HPVs. Most of the papilloma viruses are host specific. Human papilloma virus has an icosahedral symmetry with 72 capsomers arranged in the pentameric structure. It has a circular double stranded DNA of 8 kb long. It has three types of genes: early genes, late genes and control genes. HPV first infects the basal epithelium and inserts itself into the cell. It then dissociates and produces low copy number episomes. The HPV gets loosely linked to the keratocyte differentiation and divides as the keratinocyte undergoes differentiation. The major oncogenic proteins involved in the HPV carcinogenesis are E6 and E7 which interfere in the cell cycle control mechanisms. E6 on binding with the cellular protein AP, degrades the p53 through ubiquitin- directed proteolysis. P53 is essential for DNA repair, when this molecule is degraded; it affects the ell cycle control. The result is genetic instability and accumulation of the mutants ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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