Discuss the potential health and economic impact of adding human papillomavirus vaccine (hpv) to existing screening programs - Research Paper Example

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Student Number and Number Name of Professor Potential Health and Economic Impact of adding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (HPV) to Existing Screening Programs The human papillomavirus (HPV) are “small, double-stranded DNA virus that infects the epithelium” (Atkinson, Wolfe and Hamborsky 139)…
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Download file to see previous pages Even though the presence of HPV infection alone is not enough to trigger the development of cervical cancer and anogenital cancers (i.e. cancer of the vagina, vulva, penis and anus), Atkinson, Wolfe and Hamborsky (139) explained that women who are infected with HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 69, 73 and 82 are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Among these oncogenic genotypes, HPV 16 and 18 are responsible in almost 70% of cervical cancer around the world (Atkinson, Wolfe and Hamborsky 139; Murthy and Smith 315). Almost all of the HPV infections are asymptomatic. It means that the human body is capable of healing itself without much human intervention. In general, HPV vaccine is ineffective among HPV infected individuals. For this reason, pharmaceutical manufacturers of HPV vaccines are targeting boys and girls between the age of 9 to 26 who has never been infected with HPV (Gardasil). Sold in the market since 2006, the two types of HPV vaccines that prevents at least four types of HPV non-asymptomatic (i.e. HPV 16 and 18 – causes cervical cancer and HPV 6 and 11 – causes 90% of genital wards) are known as Gardasil1 and Cervarix2 (Atkinson, Wolfe and Hamborsky 139; Murthy and Smith 315). ...
, approximately “19,000 reports of adverse effects were gathered after the delivery of 35 million doses of Gardisil throughout the United States” (Klatell). In fact, there has been quite a lot of news report suggesting that the use of HPV vaccines can trigger 8.2 per 100,000 cases of fainting and 0.2 per 100,000 cases of blood clots right after receiving the vaccine (Smith). Aside from fainting and blood clot, the administration of HPV vaccine can also trigger some adverse neurological and physical effects such as severe allergic reaction on young individuals who received the vaccine, very high fever, and signs of Guillain-Barre syndrome which includes tingling sensation, weakness, and/or paralysis (Monson and Schoenstadt; Smith). With this in mind, signs of severe allergic reaction are not limited to “difficulty of breathing but also wheezing, unusual skin rashes, itching, and/or hives” (Monson and Schoenstadt). On top of the less serious cases, the administration of HPV vaccine can trigger untimely deaths among the young individuals who were given the vaccine. Based on the study of Slade, Leidel and Vellozzi, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) publicly announced 32 cases of deaths following the administration of HPV vaccine (Slade, Leidel and Vellozzi). On the other hand, the Judicial Watch reported at least 47 cases of deaths due to HPV vaccine during the same year (Judicial Watch). In general, the common causes of HPV vaccine-related deaths include: diabetic ketoacidosis, prescription drug abuse, juvenile amyotropic lateral sclerosis, meningoencephalitis, influenza B viral sepsis, pulmonary embolism, cardiac-related deaths, blood clots, arrhythmia, and idiopathic seizure disorder (Slade, Leidel and Vellozzi; Judicial Watch). Hoping to unveil ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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