quora
Nobody downloaded yet

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors - Coursework Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 have been implicated in the development of cervical cancers. To protect women from this disease, HPV vaccines have already been developed, and getting it is already being advised to women, especially to those at risk. With the growing number of women afflicted with breast cancer, there is great demand for determining a possible cure for such disease…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors"

Download file to see previous pages Thus, there is still an ongoing debate as to whether HPV causes breast cancer, and whether HPV vaccines can be used against it as well. Let’s look at two journal articles, published in year 2011, to exemplify such issue. Different Findings In the study of Antonsson et al. (2011), the prevalence of HPV in breast cancer tissue was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and sequencing. Briefly, tissue samples were obtained from each of the fifty-four different fresh frozen breast cancer tissues obtained from surgeries at Wesley Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia between 2003 and 2007. The median age of these patients were 57 years old, with the age range of 31-88 years. 59% were post-menopausal, 63% were node-negative, and their mean tumour size was 24.3mm. According to the authors, this meant that HPV infection of breast cancer or HPV as an etiological agent decrease the metastatic potential of the tumour. To detect HPV, each sample was mixed with HPV general and type 18-specific primer pairs FAP59/FAP 64. After PCR, amplified products were analyzed using 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. 50% of the samples were found to be HPV-positive, specifically of HPV type 18, although the strains were different. Upon analyzing further, HPV-positive breast cancer patients (mean age = 50 y. o.) were found to be younger than the whole group, and HPV positive tumours were also found to be smaller than the others. Histologically, HPV positive samples (96.3%) were more likely to be ductal than HPV negative ones (85.2%). Aside from PCR, an in situ hybridization was also performed using INFORM® HPV III Family 16 Probe (B) (Roche Ventana Medical System, Tucson, Arizona) that can detect 16 different cancer-causing HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, and 82). However, no HPV were found in the samples using this method. The authors attributed this to the lower sensitivity of in situ hybridization as compared to PCR. Despite the results, the authors however recognized that their findings failed to determine whether the virus actually caused the breast cancer or it was just a chance passage for all 27 cases. As well, the potential mechanism behind the presence of HPV in the breast was still unanswered. A similar study was also conducted in India by Hedau et al. (2011). Breast tissue and blood samples from two hundred fifty two (252) breast cancer patients were analyzed through PCR using the general MY09/11, GP5+/GP6+ and type 16 specific E6/E7 as primers. The age of the participants were 51.5 ± 16.7, with a range of 25-80 years. 38% were postmenopausal. However, unlike that of Antonnson, the results of Hedau’s experiments showed absence of HPV DNA in breast cancer tissues. Social Implications In comparing the results of other similar studies conducted in different countries, Hedau et al. (2011) found that the breast tissue samples of a portion of breast cancer patients from Italy, Sweden, China, Brazil, Austria, USA, Greece, Australia, Turkey, Japan, and Mexico were positive in HPV, with China and Mexico having more established results as more than one study have arrived at the same outcome of some breast cancer tissues being HPV-positive. On the other hand, studies in UK, India, Switzerland and France did not find HPV in breast ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors Coursework”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1439650-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-breast-tumors
(Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors Coursework)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1439650-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-breast-tumors.
“Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors Coursework”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1439650-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-breast-tumors.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Human and Plant Physiology
Leaves are thin, and this makes the diffusion of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) during gaseous exchange short. The midrib and the wide network of veins offer good support for the blade or the thin lamina. The broad network of veins facilitates efficient transportation of materials to and from the photosynthesizing cells.
4 Pages(1000 words)Coursework
Human right
epends upon the causes of humiliation and suffering if it exceeds the foreseeable aspect of humiliation and suffering, which should be natural in any guise of legitimate criminal punishment1. In Ireland v UK2, the Court observed that ill treatment should reach a least level of
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework
Human Trafficking
The main reason for the existence of human trafficking include; poor border controls, lack of proper employment opportunities, political instability, poverty, corruption ethnic and gender discrimination, conflict and economic imbalance. Economic
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
Human Biology
In mitosis, a mother cell divides producing two daughter cells. On the contrary, meiosis produces four meiotic products from mother cell. Also, meiosis, the mother cell is diploid but a mitotic
4 Pages(1000 words)Coursework
Human Sexuality
In US, rape committed by married partners on each other is even accounted as a rape, were as UK does not register this incident as a rape crime. 2. An individual’s
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
Human Development
These complex situations occur to any individual regardless of one’ sex. The universality of human experience, however, does not reflect in the traditional cultural teaching that nurtures boys to be tough and unemotional. In the paper, the author tackles the
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
D.C. hospital reports high rate of black women seeking treatment for advanced breast cancer
As per the study, it can be noted that black American and African women are going for the treatment of breast cancer at a last stage owing to the fear of mammography and lack of health education. In this respect, black women
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework
Human Biology
It is composed of three regions namely the cerebellum, cerebrum and the advanced marrow (Mader, 2006). The cerebrum serves in conscious actions such as speech, movement, sight, and memory. The cerebellum performs the role of body balance regulation and muscle coordination
12 Pages(3000 words)Coursework
Human Resource
During our interaction with other we find certain similarities and certain difference, and finally, we develop our relationship with those we feel comfortable. This all starts with communication at personal and professional level. At home, school, offices, social gathering and other related platforms. In our paper we would look how the theories have been applied by us on our daily basis and how they have affected and impacted us.
3 Pages(750 words)Coursework
Role of Phytooestrogen in the Prevention of Breast Cancer
They also are the molecular signals that emanate from the root of leguminous plants that attract specific nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria. The main classes of phytoestrogens are the isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. Lignans are natural plant compounds with estrogenic properties and are probably the most important source of phytoestrogens in western diets.
23 Pages(5750 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Coursework on topic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Breast Tumors for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us