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Cancer and its treatment - Essay Example

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Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women in the UK. Not only have the risk factors for this disease been determined but a reliable screening test in the form of a Pap smear has also been established. Moreover, the slow and predictable behavior pattern of this disease is now thoroughly understood…
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Cancer and its treatment
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Download file to see previous pages "All women should get annual Pap exams both for themselves and for those who love them." http://www.uky.edu/PR/News/MCPRNews/1999/pap.htm
Though, the liquid based cytology (LBC) is currently in the process of introducing the LBS as a standard tool for screening. LBC is anticipated to lower the inadequate rate as retaining or improving the sensitivity and specificity of the smear test. Use of LBC would permit current laboratory workload to be coped with the on hand workforce and the remaining cell suspension can be used for reaction of human papillomavirus testing or other ancillary tests such as chlamydia or gonococcus recognition or molecular organic tests for markers of neoplastic succession. The difficulties of LBC comprise: main changes in the routine compilation, transport and storage of cervical scrape samples and equally cytotechnologists and cytopathologists need further training to evaluate LBC slides.
Recently, there has been a study which suggested that a relationship exists between contraceptive pills and cancer of the cervix. It was claimed that women taking these pills had a higher incidence of this disease than did nonusers. However, knowledgeable experts have criticized this study on two important points. The so-called normal women used as a comparison to the group of women on pills may have differed in significant ways from the latter group. If the nonusers had less frequent sexual intercourse or fewer children, they would be expected to have a lower incidence of cervical cancer related to these factors alone. A woman with cervical cancer is often found to have begun intercourse early in her life, to have had several sexual partners, and to belong to a low socioeconomic class. Therefore, before comparisons of the effect of contraceptives on cervical cancer can be made, members of the pill-taking group and the non-pill-taking group must be similar in age of first intercourse, number of partners, and social class. Another criticism of this study was based on disagreement with the microscopic interpretation of the tissue changes. Many observers felt that the diagnosis of cancer was being made in tissues where there was no evidence of it. Precisely, there is no indication that hormonal contraception can cause cervical cancer. On the other hand, cancer of the lining of the uterus as opposed to that of the cervix may even be made less likely by the use of contraceptive pills (Hollander MC, Sheikh MS, Yu K, Zhan Q, Iglesias M, Woodworth C, and Fornace AJ Jr, 2001). During the past decade, many cases of uterine-lining cancer have been treated with high doses of progestins and in some cases the extent of the cancer has been lessened. It is felt by many physicians that progestins given as contraceptive pills may in the long run provide considerable protection against the development of this type of cancer.
Epidemiology & aetiology
Cervical cancer death rate has been lower in Britain in past 10 years. The impact of populace based screening in the precedent two decades appears lower than that in Britain and, though mortality is progressively lessening. National Cancer Registry (National Cancer Registry, 2003) illustrates that the frequency of invasive cervical cancer reduced by 1.1% yearly between 1994 and 1999, but no occurrence of information is accessible for the period before 1994. It is probable, though dubious, that the trend might have ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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