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Mid - Essay Example

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Humanism is defined by the American Humanist Association as “a progressive philosophy of life that, without theism and other supernatural beliefs, affirms our ability and responsibility to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of…
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Civilization Homework explain the term humanism  Humanism is defined by the American Humanist Associationas “a progressive philosophy of life that, without theism and other supernatural beliefs, affirms our ability and responsibility to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity” (“What is Humanism?”). From this definition, humanism means that man should learn how to trust himself regardless of what the tenets of established religion has taught him. Humanism is a movement that encourages man to own the freedom to think for himself and to use reason in the best way he could in order to satisfy human needs as well as serve human interests.
2- how did the plague or black death directly affect the Italian poet Petrarch? Why is he described by many historians as the father of humanism?
Petrarch is known as the “Father of Humanism” because he was the one who theorized that “language was the key to learning and a window to the human soul” (Woods). In short, he was the one who first realized the interplay between language and the human being. For Petrarch, if only the human being can use language effectively, we can know ourselves and the world better and we can serve others better as well. Petrarch was also the first to theorize on the need to know the theoretical and practical purpose of human life in order that one may live well and happily (Woods). Petrarch, however, endured the Black Death because a woman whom he had met in his youth, Laura de Noves, died of Black Death, and of whom Petrarch could only write, “her soul, as I believe, returned to heaven, whence it came” (Petrarch on the Plague).
3- comment on the exclusion of women from the history of our culture. what does this omission imply about our culture and our culture heritage? 
Women were excluded from the history of our culture because “our tradition tells us…that philosophy itself [including history], and its norms of reason and objectivity, exclude everything that is feminine or associated with women” (Witt). Moreover, society is simply biased against women as it promoted the “negative characterization” of women or anything pertaining to the feminine aspect (Witt). Our culture and cultural heritage therefore have been not only biased against women and once did not recognize many of the rights that they freely exercise now.
4- identify the author and comment upon the following passage. what idea or ideas is the author of this passage trying to convey to the reader? 
The passage actually comes from William Shakespeare’s play As You Like It, Act 2, scene 1, 12-17. This means that the speaker is sick and tired of the pretense that he experiences from the world around him. He seems to have been forced to adopt this insincerity ever since and that everytime he adopts this worldview, he suffers “adversity” in his life. However, without this adversity, he would not have realized the good thing that such adversity would bring him – the “precious jewel.” This precious jewel, which seems to embody the advantage of realization, makes the speaker realize that it is not society that is the source of wisdom but nature – trees, brooks, stones and everything.
5- we are facing many difficult global issue in the 21st century terrorism, global warming, AIDS, and the threat of nuclear war. it seems as though the world is very soon going to change forever. can humanity be saved or preserved by modern science and/or technology? or should we look for the answers in spiritual or religious beliefs?
Spiritual and religious beliefs may still be the answer to the difficult global issues that confront us today. The world was bare once and there was no technology but people lived peacefully with their beliefs and system of faith. It has always been faith and religion that man relied on whenever he was confronted by the worst in his life and in history. On the other hand, technology is even the one that brings about war, global warming and terrorism, for without technology, there would be no guns, advanced nuclear weapons or even those machines that contribute to global warming. Besides, no amount of technology would not be able to calm a nervous and restless mind and heart. It is only spiritual and religious beliefs that can teach us faith in the midst of fear and can teach us to focus on what is beyond the negative appearances that we see now.
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Works Cited
Petrarch on the Plague. 2010. Brown University. 13 Dec 2012. What is Humanism? 2008. American Humanist Organization. 14 Dec 2012. Witt, Charlotte. Feminist History of Philosophy. 2007. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 13 Dec 2012. Woods, Robert. Francisco Petrarch: The Christian Father of Humanism. 2011. Musings of a Christian Humanist. 14 Dec 2012. Read More
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