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Anthropology1020 Human Origin Evol/Diver - Essay Example

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The earlobe never contains the cartilage and contains a great amount of blood which could play a significant role in maintaining body…
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Anthropology1020 Human Origin Evol/Diver
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Anthropology1020 Human Origin Evol/Diver. A typical earlobe of humans consists of an adipose tissue that is connected, an areolar, pinna elasticity, and the firmness lack (Castle 34). The earlobe never contains the cartilage and contains a great amount of blood which could play a significant role in maintaining body balance and warming of the ears. In many instances, earlobes are normally considered as key biological functions. Additionally, an earlobe has some nerve endings and a zone that is erogenous in some other individuals (Castle 56). A Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle argues out that the genotype and allele frequencies within a population should always remain constant. This means that all these would always be in equilibrium. In many situations, this would occur from one generation to another until an influence that is disturbing is introduced. In this regard, the disturbing influences are mating that is not random, selection, genetic drift that is random, mutation, meiotic drive, and gene flow. It is always crucial to get to know that in actual populations, more than one of the influences that are disturbing is always in effect. This implies that this principle is a state that is ideal and gives out a baseline for analyzing change. In a population, a static allele would always assume no emigration or migration, no mutation, selected genotype pressure, and infinite size of population. For instance, a simple situation of a unit locus having two alleles (dominant and recessive), their frequencies would be denoted by p and q. In this regard, the frequency of the first would be represented as p+ q=1. Whenever mating is random the new outcome will have p2 as the frequency, the homozygote, on the other hand, would have q2 as the frequency whereas the heterozygote would have 2pq as the frequency (Castle 78).
The given problem represents a hypothetical population where by 25 children out of a group of100 are born with earlobes that are attached earlobes. An earlobe that is attached is the phenotypic recessive expression of the homozygous genotype. In many situations, the dominant, homozygous and heterozygous genotypes are expressed as earlobes that are unattached. Having the assumption that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibriuis satisfied, the frequencies of the attached and unattached earlobe alleles in this group would be given by the formula p2+ 2pq+q2=1.
Response to Question 1.
In this respect p would represent the frequency of an allele p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous that is recessive. This is also referred to as the attached earlobe. Apart from this, q would represent the dominant allele. In this case, y = 1-p =1-0.5=0.5. From the question, p2 would be given as twenty five divided by one hundred. This would give as 25/100 which is equal to 0.25. According to the formula, p is squared. In order to obtain p alone, we find the square root of 0.25 which is 0.5. This implies that the frequency of the attached and unattached earlobe would be given as 0.5 for the attached and 0.5 for the unattached earlobes respectively.
Response to Question 2.
From the formula, the heterozygous genotype is given as 2pq. Where p represents the attached earlobe as q represents the unattached earlobe. Given that p and q is 0.5, then the heterozygous genotype would be given as 2 x 0.5 x 0.5. This would give 0.5 as the heterozygous genotypes frequency.
In order to establish the dominant phenotype’s frequency, we calculate the square of q (q2). This would be o.5 x 0.5 = 0.25. Therefore, this frequency would be given as 0.25.
Response to Question 3.
In this population, the genotypic frequency would be obtained after a single mating generation within the given population. This is due to the increased homozygosis frequency for all the genes that may have come about due to inbreeding or an effect of a non random mating. In this case, this population would have the proportions of the Hardy-Weinberg in each generation but the frequency of the allele would keep on changing over time.
Work Cited
Castle, Eve. Laws governing race improvement. American. Academic. Journal of Science., 35: 233–242.2008. Read More
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