Nobody downloaded yet

The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This paper will outline a brief history of smallpox as a disease, giving a brief history of its underlying causal organism, as well as its unique characteristics, that make it a unique disease. Additionally, this paper will spell out the different explanations offered by different writers to explain the evolutionary origins of smallpox…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.3% of users find it useful
The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox"

Download file to see previous pages Smallpox is caused by the Variola virus, a member of the orthopox virus family and one of the many pox viruses that have been infecting a range of animal species throughout the world for millennia. Orthopox viruses include cowpox and chicken pox. Humans can be infected by some of these pox viruses, but none are as deadly as smallpox (Peters, 2004). When seen under an electronic microscope, Variola looks like a brick-shaped or elliptical classic form consisting of two strands of DNA (Barnes, 2007). They represent the largest and the most complex of the pathogenic viruses. It is one of the largest and most complicated viruses known, thus, so lethal and difficult to combat. When the Variola invades the human cell it, is forced to reproduce the virus until there are hundreds of thousands of viruses within the cell. When the cell can no longer contain the viruses, the cell bursts. The viruses shower onto other cells infecting them (Glynn & Glynn, 2004). Then the process begins all over again. Unlike most DNA viruses that replicate within the nucleus of the host cell, pox viruses manage to replicate outside the nucleus within the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The virus sheds its double membranous coat once it gains entry into the host cell and slowly begins to absorb particular nutrients from the cytoplasm needed for its replication (Barnes, 2007). Origins of the disease The question of the origin and evolution of human smallpox virus was difficult to address. No one definitely knows when, where or how the first occurrence of the smallpox virus on earth happened. Even within documented human history, it is difficult to trace the forms of smallpox origins and ascertain its development completely. All kinds of plagues, rashes and pox diseases, as well as other diseases, were mentioned interchangeably. The earliest unscientific descriptions of the symptomatology do not sufficiently differentiate various kinds of ailments (Koplow, 2004). Even in the modern era, particular differential diagnosis has continued to pose a challenge as smallpox can evolve as numerous distinct types of diseases from time to time, until laboratory findings confirm the innitial clinical impressions. There are several explanations which have been expressed in attempt to explain the origins or beginning of the human version of the virus. Peters (2004) claims that the Variola virus can be traced back to prehistoric times. In its early form it was a virus that primarilry infected rodents. However, prehistoric humans hunted rodents for food or came into conatct with them in other ways, and at some point the virus may have jumped from rodents to humans. Koplow (2004) suggests that the small pox virus might have originated from arbitrary mutation of some other less virulent and even older subspecies of unknown virus. This might have happened most probably around 10,000B.C, somewhere in the bountiful Ganges River plain in India. He insinuates that some moderately minor disease agents instinctively adapted and modified themselves from ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1441868-the-evolutionary-origins-of-smallpox
(The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1441868-the-evolutionary-origins-of-smallpox.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
The Evolutionary Concept Essay
Secondly, evolution can be used to clarify the beginning of existing organisms. It states that living organisms originated from a general antecedent. This unit examines the hypothesis of evolution, illustration, classification causes and effect analysis of the evolutionary concept in relation to various literature readings (Mayr, 12).
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Evolutionary Biology
On one side the table there are 6 chairs, and on the other side 5. On the side with 6 chairs, the guests seated are, in the order running from my end of the table to that with the empty chair: Gregor Mendel, Thomas Malthus, my Mom Leigh, Wilhelm Weinberg, and Aristotle.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
(Sharon Frey, 2007). In 1950's many campaigns were conducted in almost all the parts of Africa and South Asian Sub-continents. Although vaccines were developed, they did not guarantee a complete eradication of the virus. The WHO officials had to invent new ideas to help in eradicating small pox.
2 Pages(500 words)Article
Evolutionary Ethics
The Darwinism theory has, however, given a special direction to the evolutionary theory of ethics in connecting good conduct with survival. What en evolutionary theory might legitimately say about survival between different types of conduct which survives in a 'struggle for existence' between different types of conduct is the better - a view to which it would have the support of the popular press which seems to hold that the type of civilization of the conquerors in a war is always better than of the vanquished.
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
As the name suggests, smallpox is caused by the variola virus, which is a member of the orthopoxvirus genus. This genus also incorporates cowpox, monkeypox, orf and molluscum contagiosum (CDC, 2004). Some strains of this
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Smallpox Vaccination
With the help of vaccines, this disease is completely eridicated and there is no outbreaks that occurred after the last occurrence in 1977 in Somania. However, after the 9/11 attacks it is feared that smallpox viruses could be used as biological weapons if it reaches the hands of anti-social elements.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Evolutionary Phonology
Leading academic Blevins’ work in “Evolutionary Phonology” (2007) focuses on recurrence of sound patterns in world languages in an attempt to formulate an explanation for the similarities in sound patterns. Blevins’ theory of evolutionary phonology
39 Pages(9750 words)Essay
N 750 words, discuss and provide support for the evolutionary origins of the following organisms or disease HIV,and how or why it spread to humans
The earliest reported case of HIV in the United States could be traced back to the year 1981, wherein the disease was first detected among homosexual men (Avert, 2012). However,
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Evolutionary development
ars, but prominent biologists and geologists could not accept, evolution has an enormous potential of special creation, where species have separate origins and do not change or change only within narrow limits. Two factors stymied evolutionary thinking, first the doctrine of
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology is a branch in psychology that examines and identifies several traits that are involved in evolution, such as sexual selection. This branch of psychology also proposes that the present human behavior is a product of adaptation because of survival. This paper deals with all these as it tries to answer several questions.

12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us