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ICP- MONROE KELLIEN HYPOTHESIS - Essay Example

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The intracranial pressure is abbreviated as ICP, and the body utilizes a number of mechanisms to ensure that ICP is maintained at equilibrium…
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ICP- MONROE KELLIEN HYPOTHESIS
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ICP-Monroe Kellien Hypothesis ICP-Monroe Kellien Hypothesis The phrase intracranial pressure refers to the pressure within the skull, which affects the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain tissue. The intracranial pressure is abbreviated as ICP, and the body utilizes a number of mechanisms to ensure that ICP is maintained at equilibrium (Lang & Chesnut, 1995). ICP is affected by sudden activities in the thoracic cavity like coughing and sneezing. The volume of the cranium components directly affects the level of ICP. Great deviations from the normal ICP should be medically rectified early enough to avoid cases of serious medical complications.
Monro-kellie hypothesis refers to the relationships between volume and pressure of ICP, blood, cerebral perfusion pressure and brain tissue in the human skull. The hypothesis proposes that, it is not possible to compress the cranial compartment and that there is always a fixed volume of the cranium cavity (Marmarou et al, 1991). The entire constituents of the cranium and the cranium itself keep a volume equilibrium, which responds directly to any alterations in the cranial cavity. An alteration in the volume of a single cranial component results to changes in the rest of the cranial components. These activities act as compensation for any changes that might compromise the cranial balance. The chief shock absorbers for augmented volumes comprise both blood volume and CSF (Lang & Chesnut, 1995). These shock absorbers react to raises in quantity of the rest of intracranial components.
Medical conditions like brain trauma raise the levels of ICP, if ICP goes up it is likely to cause severe brain harm to the brain tissues and cells (Chesnut et al, 1993). Prolonged high levels of ICP can result instantaneous death in adults, but children can withstand such higher pressure for a longer time than the adults without.Severe physical shock in the head can raise the level of ICL can result to cerebral edema and eventually crush the tissue of the brain. Further, such high ICP can dislocate some vital structures of the brain and hinder the movement of blood to the tissues and brain cells.
The vertebral canal and cranium and inelastic dura form a non-flexible container that does not stretch or expand in case of increase of the cranial components. Therefore, any increase in cranial blood will result to a direct rise in ICP. Further, another implication of increase in one of the cranial components is that, such an increase will be accommodated by a subsequent decrease in other cranial constituents (Bahram, 2001). This relationship between the cranial components describes the monro-Kellie doctrine. However, minor changes in the volumes of cranial constituents do not conform to this doctrine because some of the cranial fluids move into the spinal cord in case of such an increase. Further, the inner soft linings of the cerebral cavity stretch to the cavity giving room for any minor increase or decrease in the cranial cavity (Lang & Chesnut, 1995).
In conclusion, the phrase intracranial pressure refers to the pressure that is within the skull, which affects the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain tissue. Great deviations from the normal ICP should be medically rectified early enough to avoid cases of serious medical complications. Monro-kellie hypothesis refers to the relationships between volume and pressure of ICP, blood, cerebral perfusion pressure and brain tissue in the human skull. Medical conditions like brain trauma raise the levels of ICP, if ICP goes up it is likely to cause severe brain harm to the brain tissues and cells. The vertebral canal, cranium and inelastic dura form a non-flexible container that does not stretch or expand in case of increase of the cranial components.
References
Bahram, M.(2001). The Monro-kellie hypothesis: Journal of history Neurology.
Chesnut, R.M. Marshall, L.F. & Klauber, M.R.(1993). The role of secondary brain injury in determining the outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma.
Marmarou, A. Anderson, R.L. & Ward, J.D.(1991). Impact of ICP instability and hypotension on the outcome in patients with severe head trauma. Journal of Neurosurgery.
Lang, E.W. & Chesnut, R.M.(1995). Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in severe head injury. New Horizons. Read More
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