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Public health - Assignment Example

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Drug testing in schools presents us with a very difficult ethical or moral dilemma: How is the school’s right to good results and the interest of a society in conducive learning place, and at the same time ensuring that there is protection of our fundamental right to…
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Ethical dilemma Drug testing in schools A. Ethical dilemma Drug testing in schools presents us with a very difficult ethical or moral dilemma: How is the school’s right to good results and the interest of a society in conducive learning place, and at the same time ensuring that there is protection of our fundamental right to privacy?
B. Point of View
It is true that these programs subject the students to degradation and invade infringe their privacy randomly and routinely, not just because there is a substantial suspicion of abuse of drug. The results of the programs only show that there are traces of drug in the body of an individual, not whether the student is being affected by the drug in their studies (Morris, 1998).
C. Alternative course/s of action and consequence
Due to the serious repercussions of the false accusations, drug testing should only be used when positive results signify compelling proof o use of drug (U.S. News and World Reports, 1996). When those who do not use are falsely accused, this might lead to stigmatization for offenses that they are clean or free of. In addition, false accusations may lead to the loss of good and bright students.
D. Guiding principles and values
In resolving the moral dilemma, it will be important that ways are found of balancing these critical values. It is argued by critics of programs of drug testing that students have a fundamental right to privacy (OKeefe, 2000). It is frequently claimed that drug tests that are conducted in a proper way are very correct, and proof of use of drug that are provided by the tests is thus credible. The main concern of several critics of drug testing in schools that innocent students will be seriously affected appears to be irrational if appropriate confirmatory tests are carried out.
Vaccinations
A. Ethical dilemma
Ethical dilemmas in the issue of vaccination include; for instance, we find that in an attempt to ensure that the greatest number of people is protected; regulations of public vaccine might violate individual liberty and freedom. Tension ensues when people want to exercise their conjugal rights in protecting themselves together with their children by not accepting vaccination, if they refuse present safety or medical evidence, or even if their ideological beliefs are seriously against vaccination.
B. Point of view
Vaccines are really responsible for most successes of global public health, like the eradication of measles and substantial reductions in some other serious infections such as smallpox and polio. However, vaccinations have for long time been the subject of different ethical controversies. Ethical discussions and objections to institutions and some other mandates come up because some people and communities oppose the mandates, and have philosophical or religious beliefs conflicting or disagreeing with vaccination (Caplan, 2008).
C. Alternative course/s of action and consequence
In an attempt to solve these ethical dilemmas, and also the respect the beliefs of people and also address their different concerns or worries, it is important that states permit vaccination exceptions or exemptions for the medical contraindications, permit religious exemptions as well as allow exceptions for philosophical purposes (Mary, 1999).
D Guiding principles and values
Public and medical advocates should try balancing the ethics of protecting beliefs of people and the health of community. People who exercise philosophical and or religious exemptions have high chances of contracting infections; these put themselves together with their communities at a greater risk (Peltola, 2000).
References
Bradley P. (1999). “Should childhood immunisation be compulsory?” J Med Ethics, 25: 330-334.
Caplan AL. (2008). “Ethics.” In: Plotkin SA, Walter OA, Offit PA, eds. Vaccines. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Colgrove J. (2006). “The ethics and politics of compulsory HPV vaccination.” N Engl J Med, 355:2390-2391.
Dawson A. (2004). “Vaccination and the prevention problem.” Bioethics, 18: 515-530.
Isaacs D, Kilham H, Leask J, et al. (2009). “Ethical issues in immunisation.” Vaccine, 27: 615-618.
Javitt G, (2008). “Accessing mandatory HPV vaccination: Who should call the shots?” Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 384-395.
Mary G. (1999). Workers Rights. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld.
Morris J. (1998). “The Limits of Science in On-the-Job Drug Screening," Hastings Center Report, Volume 34, pp. 7-12.
OKeefe, A. (2000). "The Case Against Drug Testing," Psychology Today, Volume 36, pp. 34-35, 38.
Peltola H. (2000). “What would happen if we stopped vaccination?” Lancet, 2000; 356: 522.
Stewart A. (2009). “When vaccine injury claims go to court.” N Engl J Med; 360: 2498-2500.
U.S. News and World Reports, (1996). "Test Employees for Drug Use?", an interview with Peter Besinger, Volume 112, p. 58.
Williamson S. (2004). “Anti-vaccination leagues.” Arch Dis Child, 59:1195-1196. Read More
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