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Litature review - Essay Example

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Likewise, factors which contribute to the frequency of occurrence of white-collar crimes and punishment for white-collar were also examined. Existing studies were…
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Download file to see previous pages The group noted that although higher financial losses incurred from white-collar crime compared with street crime, the law tends to focus more on street crime. Moreover, they argued that the public are even more inclined to sustain corrective measures against street offenders. The study improved on prior white-collar research by recognizing the effects of socio-demographics, perceptions of white-collar crime, as well as corresponding punitive actions on public support for allocating budget for white-collar initiatives. (Holfreter, et al. 50).
Male and female white-collar offenders have similar ways of declaring their account of how and why they committed fraud. While men declare their white-collar crime as out of character perpetrated out of necessity, women usually plead to the crime as due to necessity and the only reasonable alternative based on the circumstances. Based on qualitative researches, gender has been proven to be am important social characteristic with respect to the choice and use of specific accounts for various white-collar offenses (Klenowski, et al. 60, 69).
Meanwhile, public perceptions about the punishment white-collar crimes and street crimes were studied by Schoepfer, Carmichael, and Piquero, particularly, the factors associated to sanction threats. A probability sample was involved in a study comparing robbery and fraud as exemplars. Findings revealed that popular perception tends to consider street crime as having a higher probability of being caught and that the penalties of street crime are stiffer than for white collar crimes. Furthermore, the correlates of certainty and severity for both street and white collar crimes are similar. However, respondents differed in their perceptions about the possibility of being meted particular punishments and actual punishments that white-collar offenders should receive (Schoepfer, et al. 151).
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