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Terrorism donned a new role and it took the form of bio-terrorism in which hazardous chemicals were used to attack people. Anthrax was the first material used in bio-terrorism. (Grey, 2006).
The article provides a complete picture of the stages in which anthrax affects a person. But the article fails to explain the methods adopted by the terrorists who perform this task. The epidemiological framework consists of various methods and modules. During the 1800’s and 1900’s, people in America were affected by Bacillus Anthracis. People who were in direct contact with the animal products and its related industries were the only victims. (Jernigan, 1996). In the mid-1900’s, America saw the first case of inhalational anthrax. In this case, anthrax was purposely used to attack a person. People who came in direct contact with it were affected by this bacterium. People who worked in the postal department were most prone to getting affected by this disease.
The patient’s clinical data was collected and tested and the reports confirmed that these people were affected by inhalational anthrax. (Koehler, 2003). It is one of the epidemic diseases and each of the affected patient’s exhibited different symptoms but most of them had fever, chills and fatigue. The patients were treated with median incubation after which they were given certain antibiotics. Pleural effusion was the common problem in all the patients who were affected by anthracis. Though antibiotics were given, some of them showed no signs of improvement. (Guillemin, 2004).The complication depended on the case history of the patients. Inhalational anthrax affected the chest of the person who inhales it. It was a common phenomenon and chest x-ray of the patients revealed certain abnormalities in the chest. Though the counts of white blood corpuscles of most of the patients were normal, they showed some
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In recent years, attention has been given to the potential of anthrax as an agent for bioterrorism, partially because of the ease of transporting lethal amounts of the toxin. Only a millionth of a gram of anthrax spores are necessary to cause a single lethal dose by inhalation, and a kilogram has the potential to cause lethal effects in thousands of people (Danzig, 1997).
This results in not only improved response to bioterrorism, but also improved responses to many other infectious diseases and chemical toxins both synthetic and naturally occurring. Since its creation, the LRN has expanded to include state and local, military, and international labs, allowing for standardization and implementation of training and technical programs nation-wide.
Anthrax is easier to use than explosives and other terrorism devices. Most terrorists are less educated and have limited access to technology, making use of simple explosives much more common than an bioterrorism agent (Bowman, 2002). Anthrax can be easily attained from the former Soviet military system.
The anthrax attack in the US came soon after 9/11, in which the terrorist group identified with al Qaeda seized two civilian planes and smashed them into the World Trade Center in New York and killed about 3,000 people. When President Bush deplored the terrorist attack by saying that men who would dare such an act are not above using biological or chemical weapons, the threat posed by bio-weapons as an instrument of terrorism became an ugly reality.
To prevent further damages, physical and psychological, caused by bioterrorism attacks, epidemiologic actions should be implemented. The first and most basic is the focus of this paper, clinical observations.
Bioterrorism has posed infinitive attacks within the past
rism in 2001 including the subsequent release of anthrax spores via the Post Office, the US government quickly passed a series of legislations aimed at curtailing incidences of bioterrorism as well as increased funding to the Health and Human Services. Albeit public health
ters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have categorized potential bioterrorism agents as A, B, and C, based on disseminating abilities; mortality/morbidity rates; capacity to cause national alarm; and
nce the greatest danger by anthrax lies in its inhalation which is the most lethal, and also the most difficult to detect and treat making it the “preferred portal of entry for biowarfare and bioterrorism” (Trippon, 2002, p.18). As an excellent weapon of mass destruction,
For example, descriptive studies and surveillance can be used for the study of distribution; with analytical studies utilized for the study of determinants. Major areas of study are investigation of outbreaks, screening and surveillance of disease, bi monitoring, and comparison
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