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Although such legislation was needed to ensure equal access to employment for all Americans, it also served the purpose of defining diversity by symbolizing what characteristics of American workers should be preserved in the workplace. In this regard, organizations have relied on policies, such as the 4/5ths rule, for ensuring that selection tools do not unfairly discriminate against minority applicants.
From the critical perspective, societies themselves made a rational justification for diversity, revealing through their practices that diversification of the workplace in economics is a necessity for increasing workplace innovation and creativity (Cox & Blake, 1991). This rational argument of economic necessity for diversity has been vividly articulated during the United States Supreme Court case of Gratz v.Bollinger (2003). In this case the University of Michigan’s admissions practices were challenged for automatically awarding minority applicants “diversity points” that were not available for non-minority applicants. A number of organizations filed briefs supporting the University of Michigan’s policies because promoting diversity in higher education would increase the pool of highly qualified applicants for future workforce. Arguments raised in the briefs were that students educated around diversity (1) are more adept at facilitating unique and creative approaches to problem solving; (2) are better able to develop products that appeal to a wide variety of consumers; (3) are better equipped for working with diverse business partners, employees, and clientele and; (4) will contribute to a positive work environment through decreasing incidents of discrimination and stereotyping (3M et al., 2003).
Cox and Blake (1991) argued that attitudes, cognition, behaviors, and beliefs are distributed differently across ages, races, and genders, therefore, such heterogeneity, can foster creativity and innovations.
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According to the report gender refers to a set of observable characteristics that are used to provide distinction between the male and female in any given population. There exists only two recognizable genders within the population; it describes the femininity and masculinity of persons in any given society. It is a description of the sexual orientation of different people in the overall population.
Most developing countries have efficient and effective labor market but lack the machinery to carry out specific duties hence resort to using human labor for almost all economic activities (Antoni & Beaten 87). Women in particular cannot manage to perform these jobs and therefore resort to other jobs that are low paying which are mostly casual and very insecure.
Fairness among both sexes in economic terms and with reference to occupational responsibilities has been of great concern to many writers and reviewers. As a matter of fact, nations and governments have taken over the issue and constituted various law and regulations that ensure that there is maximum fairness between male and females at the workplace.
Gender is therefore a dynamic entity as compared to sex which is a fixed entity. Mostly the identification of gender is based on the biological characteristics. Among the people, the definition of who is a man or a woman is attributed to the roles that they play.
Why Counselors and Psychotherapists Should Take Patient’s Socio-economic, Gender, Race and Culture into Consideration. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Psychotherapy and counseling are activities undertaken to help a person where there is need to gain insight and better view, as well as positive perception of the happenings of one’s life ( PACFA Inc, 2013).
For instance, sexuality and gender are interrelated because there is a close link between gender differences and sexual behavior of individuals. For instance, researchers argue that women are "naturally" more sexual than men, according to historical, cultural, and political construction of sexuality. Class and race are interrelated concepts determining social variables and ethnic differences in the social environment.
Freedom Writers on the other hand not only tackle issues on racism but on gender discrimination, too. The movie presents common problems encountered by other races in the country but also pictures the sad reality that happens even among same races. Women are
This paper seeks to discover why women in the workforce are usually outnumbered by the number of male workers. The theories and contingencies will be discussed in order to fathom why such issue emerged and unresolved.
e population identify the value added by individuals of different make up; in terms of output, level of education, occupation status and income in relation to gender, race and age. The fact that we have various genres in the population prompted the need to assess; the African
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